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Heterodon simus (LINNAEUS, 1766)

IUCN Red List - Heterodon simus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Southern Hognose Snake
G: Südliche Hakennasennatter 
SynonymColuber simus LINNAEUS 1766: 375
Heterodon simus — HOLBROOK 1842: 57
Heterodon simus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 59
Heterodon catesbyi GÜNTHER 1858: 83
Heterodon simus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 176
Heterodon simus — CROTHER 2000: 62
Heterodon simus — ERNST & ERNST 2003: 151
Heterodon simus — KUNZ 2010
Heterodon simus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 330 
DistributionUSA (S Mississippi, S Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, SE North Carolina)

Type locality: Carolina  
TypesHolotype: nondesignated, (A. Garden, 1760–1761), lost fide Edgren (1953: 640).
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.4.43-44 [catesbyi] 
CommentDiet: primarily frogs and toads, but also other vertebrates

Distribution: Records from Dade Co., Florida (USNM 85319), Indiana (USNM 4834, 2 specimens), Louisiana (UNMNH 3719), and Virginia (USNM 1187) can all be considered to be in error, according to Meylan 1985.

Edgren (1953) stated that the specimens that Linnaeus used to describe simus are not typical of H. simus; he thought it unquestionable that Linnaeus had H. platyrhinos in hand when H. simus was described. To minimize confusion
Edgren (1952) applied to the ICZN to confirm the use of H. simus in its present connotation. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “simus”, an adjective meaning snubnosed or pugnosed and refers to the markedly upturned rostral scale found in this species. 
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Beane, J. C. 2012. Heterodon simus (southern hog-nosed snake) predation. Herpetological Review 43: 659-660 - get paper here
  • Beane, J.C. 2004. A Southern Hognose Snake (Heterodon simus) of Record Size Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40(4): 184-185. - get paper here
  • Beane, Jeffrey C. 2015. Heterodon simus (southern hog-nosed snake) longevity. Herpetological Review 46 (3): 372-373 - get paper here
  • BEANE, JEFFREY C.; MICHAEL D. MARTIN, DUSTIN C. SMITH & STEPHANIE J. HORTON. 2021. HETERODON SIMUS (Southern Hog-nosed Snake). REPRODUCTION and NESTING. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 424–425. - get paper here
  • Beane, Jeffrey C.; Sean P. Graham, Thomas J. Thorp, and L. Todd Pusser 2014. Natural History of the Southern Hognose Snake (Heterodon simus) in North Carolina, USA. Copeia 2014 (1): 168–175 - get paper here
  • Camper, Jeffrey D. 2019. The Reptiles of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, 288 pp. [review in Copeia 107 (3): 590, 2019] - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Drayer, Andrea N. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Heterodon simus (southern hog-nosed snake). Herpetological Review 44 (4): 628 - get paper here
  • Edgren, A. 1953. On the identity of the snake Coluber simus Linnaeus. Copeia 1953 (1): 64-65 - get paper here
  • Edgren, Richard A. 1952. Proposed determination under the plenary powers of the species to which the trivial name "simus' Linnaeus, 1767 (as published in the binomial combination "Coluber simus") (class Reptilia) is to be applied. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 6:354-355
  • Enge, K.M. 2004. Record Clutch Size for the Southern Hognose Snake (Heterodon simus) Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40(2): 76. - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H. & Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, 668 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield; David E. Scott, Travis J. Ryan, Kurt A. Buhlmann, Tracey D. Tuberville, Brian S. Metts, Judith L. Greene, Tony Mills, Yale Leiden, Sean Poppy, Christopher T. Winne 2000. The Global Decline of Reptiles, Déjà Vu Amphibians: Reptile species are declining on a global scale. Six significant threats to reptile populations are habitat loss and degradation, introduced invasive species, environmental pollution, disease, unsus BioScience 50 (8): 653–666 - get paper here
  • Goin, C.J. 1947. A note on the Food of Heterodon simus Copeia 1947 (4): 275. - get paper here
  • Guyer, Craig; Mark A. Bailey, and Robert H. Mount 2018. Lizards and snakes of Alabama. University of Alabama Press, 397 pp. - get paper here
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Kühn, Joseph 2012. Wohnst du noch, oder lebst du schon? Das IKEA-Schlangenrack. Draco 12 (48): 72-76
  • Kunz, K. 2010. Hooked on Hogs! Süchtig nach Hakennasennattern. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (81): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. 2012. Kleine Tiere, kleine Terarrien, großer Anspruch: Nano-Terraristik!. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (97): 22-31 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. & Nickel, N. 2010. Klein aber oho! Die Südliche Hakennasennatter. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (81): 37-40 - get paper here
  • Linné, C. von [= Linnaeus, C.] 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Mays, Jonathan D. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Heterodon simus (southern hog-nosed snake). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 219-220 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Meylan P A 1985. Heterodon simus (Linnaeus). Southern hognose snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 375: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Platt D R 1983. Heterodon Latreille. Hognose snakes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 315: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Price, W.H. & L.G. Carr 1943. Eggs of Heterodon simus Copeia 1943 (3): 193. - get paper here
  • Snyder, Richard C. 1945. Notes on the snakes of southeastern Alabama. Copeia 1945 (3): 173-174 - get paper here
  • Stevenson, D J; Enge, K M; Kellner, W S; Hentges, T W; Daly-Crews, T & Pirtle, C 2018. Heterodon simus (Southern Hog-nosed Snake) Use of pocket gopher mounds and Gopher Tortoise burrows. Herpetological Review 49 (3): 547-548 - get paper here
  • Stevenson, Dirk J. 1999. Geographic distribution. Heterodon simus. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 54 - get paper here
  • STEVENSON, DIRK J. et al. 2021. New County Records for Amphibians and Reptiles in Georgia, USA. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 350-359
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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