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Hierophis gemonensis (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Hierophis gemonensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Balkan Racer, Balkan Whip Snake
G: Balkan-Zornnatter 
SynonymNatrix gemonensis LAURENTI 1768: 76
Coluber laurenti BEDRIAGA 1882
Zamenis gemonensis — BOULENGER 1893: 395
Zamenis gemonensis — WALL 1908: 800
Zamenis gemonensis — BOULENGER 1913
Coluber gemonensis — KAHL et al. 1980: 233
Coluber gemonensis —SCHÄTTI & WILSON 1986
Hierophis gemonensis — SCHÄTTI 1988
Coluber gemonensis — HENLE 1993
Hierophis laurenti — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Coluber gemonensis — SEHNAL & SCHUSTER 1999
Haemorrhois gemonensis - WELCH
Hierophis gemonensis — NAGY et al. 2004
Hierophis gemonensis — NAGY 2010 (pers. comm.)
Hierophis gemonensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 326 
DistributionNE Italy (only in a very limited area near Trieste! Friuli district [E. RAZZETTI, pers. comm.]),
coastal Croatia (including some Adriatic islands, Krk, etc), Slovenia,
Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Albania,
Greece (Crete, Corfu = Corfou)

Type locality: Gemona, Italy (where the species is absent) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesNeotype, MHNG 1357.70, a 916 mm male, designated by Schätti et al., 1991: 51 and ICZN Opinion 1686. 
CommentNot listed by ENGELMANN et al. (1993), who list only Coluber laurenti (which is not explicitely mentioned in the Zoological Record of 1882).

Subspecies: 2 subspecies fide SCHÄTTI & WILSON 1986. Maybe confused with Natrix natrix.

Distribution: CORKILL & COCHRANE 1966 list this species from the Arabian peninsula, probably in error.

Nomenclature: The name gemonensis is a nomen conservandum. Schätti & Lanza (1987) demonstrate that Natrix gemonensis is an older synonym of Coluber viridiflavus, because the type locality is only inhabited by this latter species. The correct name should have been Coluber laurenti (Bedriaga, 1882). 
References
  • Anonymous 1992. OPINION 1686: Natrix gemonensis LAURENTI, 1768 (currently Coluber gemonensis), Coluber viridiflavus LACÉPÈDE, 1789 and Coluber helveticus LACÉPÈDE, 1789 (currently Natrix natrix helvetica) (Reptilia, Serpentes): specific names conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 49:174-175. - get paper here
  • Bauer, Luc 2005. Eb week op de Peloponnesus. Lacerta 63 (3): 92-107 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1913. The snakes of Europe. Methusen & Co. Ltd, London, 151 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Broggi, Mario F. 1994. Feldherpetologische Beobachtungen und Bemerkungen zu schützenswerten Biotopen auf griechischen Inseln (Amphibia; Reptilia; Griechenland). Herpetozoa 7 (1/2): 29-34 - get paper here
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965)
  • Dieckmann, Martin & Karin Dieckmann 2010. Die mythischen Inseln: Cres und Lošinj. Draco 11 (42): 40-53
  • Enzeroth, A. 1982. Herptologische Beobachtungen auf der Insel Krk. Sauria 4 (1): 5-8 - get paper here
  • Henle,K. 1993. Coluber gemonensis - Balkanzornnatter. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 97-110
  • Jooris, Robert 1996. Coluber gemonensis (Laurenti, 1768) the only correct scientific name of the Balkan whipsnake. Litteratura Serpentium 16 (2): 30-31
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  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
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  • Kyriazi, P., Kornilios, P., Nagy, Z. T., Poulakakis, N., Kumlutaş, Y., Ilgaz, Ç., Avcı, A., Göçmen, B., Lymberakis, P. 2013. Comparative phylogeography reveals distinct colonization patterns of Cretan snakes. Journal of Biogeography, 40: 1143–1155. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12057 - get paper here
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp.
  • Machts, Tobias 2010. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Peloponnes-Halbinsel. Draco 11 (42): 65-72
  • Mertens,R. 1968. Eine schwarze Zornnatter von den Cycladen: Coluber gemonensis gyarosensis n. subsp.. Senckenbergiana biologica 46 (1): 5-9
  • Meyer, A. 1985. Die Reptilienfauna des südlichen Peleponnes. Sauria 7 (1): 13-16 - get paper here
  • Mezzasalma, Marcello; Andrea Dall'Asta, Anna Loy, Marc Cheylan, Petros Lymberakis, Marco A. L. Zuffi, Ljiljana Tomović, Gaetano Odierna and Fabio M. Guarino 2015. A sisters’ story: comparative phylogeography and taxonomy of Hierophis viridiflavus and H. gemonensis (Serpentes, Colubridae). Zoologica Scripta 44: 495–508; DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12115 - get paper here
  • Nagy, Z.T.; R. Lawson, U. Joger, M. Wink 2004. Molecular systematics of racers, whipsnakes and relatives (Reptilia: Colubridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (3): 223-233 - get paper here
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  • Rakovac, Rozelindra Coz; Duje Lisicic, Tomislav Smuc, Natalija Topic Popovic, Ivancica Strunjak-Perovic, Margita Jadan, Zoran Tadic, and Jurica Jug Dujakovic 2011. Classification Modeling of Physiological Stages in Captive Balkan Whip Snakes Using Blood Biochemistry Parameters. Journal of Herpetology 45 (4): 525-529. - get paper here
  • Schätti B; Wilson L D 1986. Coluber Linnaeus. Holarctic racers. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 399: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Schätti, B. 1988. Systematik und Evolution der Schlangengattung Hierophis Fitzinger, 1843. PhD Diss. Univ. Zürich 1988
  • Schatti, B.; Stimson, A.F.; Henle, K. 1991. Natrix gemonensis Laurenti, 1768 (currently Coluber gemonesis), Coluber viridiflavus Lacepede, 1789 and Coluber helveticus Lacepede, 1789 (currently Natrix natrix helvetica). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 48 (1): 50 - get paper here
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