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Holbrookia approximans BAIRD, 1859

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Speckled Earless Lizard
S: Lagartija Sorda Manchada 
SynonymHolbrookia approximans BAIRD 1859: 253
Holbrookia maculata approximans — SCHMIDT 1922: 721
Holbrookia maculata approximans — SMITH 1935: 189
Holbrookia maculata aproximans — JAMESON & FLURY 1949
Holbrookia maculata approximans — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 83
Holbrookia approximans — WEBB 1984
Holbrookia maculata approximans — BARTLETT & BARTLETT 1999: 215
Holbrookia maculata approximans — CROTHER 2000: 45
Holbrookia approximans — LEMOS-ESPINAL 2000
Holbrookia approximans — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Holbrookia approximans — VÁSQUEZ-DIAZ & QUINTERO-DIAZ 2005
Holbrookia approximans — LEMOS-ESPINAL & SMITH 2007
Holbrookia approximans — VALDEZ-LARES et al. 2013 
DistributionMexico (Coahuila, Chihuahua, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Durango, Sonora, Nuevo Leon, Aguascalientes, Jalisco)

Type locality: Lower Rio Grande of Tamaulipas (fide Baird 1859: 8).  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: lost fide Smith & Taylor 1950 
DiagnosisComparisons: Holbrookia approximans and H. elegans are closely related and very similar. In H. approximans the relative tail length is 81-113% nin males, in females 73-.87%, vs in H. elegans 117-142% and 92-126%, respectively. Mature females ofthe latter species have an orange central gular spot, lacking in the other species. Comparisons of the two species are in Smith et al. (2004).

H. approximans and H. elegans differ from H. maculata by having in males a blue patch surrounding the black lateral bars on the sides of the abdomen, and in females by having smaller and grayish lateral bars, not black. Blue is not present around the lateral bars in H. maculata, and the bars are equally large and black in the two sexes.

H. approximans has no orange-colored spot in middle of throat in adult females, while H. elegans has an orange spot in the middle of the throat in adult females (Lemos-Espinal et al. 2015). 
CommentDistribution: not in North America (north of Mexico) according to Crother et al. 2017. Previously reported from USA (Arizona, SE Arizona, W Texas), e.g. by Gloyd 1937. Not in Guanajuato fide Leyte-Manrique et al. 2022. 
EtymologyNamed after John Edwards Holbrook (1794-1871) and its spotted pattern (Latin “maculata”). See Moll (2007) for a short biography. The specific name is a Latin word meaning "similar," applied because of its similarity to H. maculata. 
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Carbajal-Márquez, Rubén A. and Gustavo E. Quintero-Díaz 2016. The Herpetofauna of Aguascalientes, México. Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 2(1):
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Cruz-Sáenz, D., F. J. Muñoz-Nolasco, V. Mata-Silva, J. D. Johnson, E. García-Padilla, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Jalisco, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 23–118 - get paper here
  • Gloyd, Howard K. 1937. A herpetological consideration of faunal areas in Southern Arizona. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 5 (5): 77-136 - get paper here
  • Jameson, David H.;Flury, Alvin G. 1949. The reptiles and amphibians of the Sierra Vieja Range of southwestern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 1 (2): 54-77 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J. A., H. M. Smith & D. Chiszar 2000. New distributional and variational data on some speices of lizards from Chihuahua, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 35(8):181-187 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 613 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., David Chiszar, and Hobart M. Smith 2004. Selected Records of 2003 Lizards from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (9): 164-168 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Quintero-Díaz, Gustavo Ernesto; Ana Gisele Pérez-Delgadillo, Rubén Alonso Carbajal-Márquez 2017. SECOND RECORD OF HOLBROOKIA APPROXIMANS (SQUAMATA: PHRYNOSOMATIDAE) FOR AGUASCALIENTES, MEXICO AND HIGHEST ALTITUDE RECORD. Acta Zoologica Mexicana (n. s.) 33 (1): 154-157. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P., and D. Owens. 1944. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Coahuila, Mexico. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series. Chicago. 29: 97-115. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl Patterson 1922. A review of the North American genus of lizards Holbrookia. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46 (12): 709-725 - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1935. Notes on some Mexican lizards of the genus Holbrookia, with a description of a new species. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22 (8): 185-201 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Tanner, W.W. 1987. Lizards and turtles of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist. 47: 383-421 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1952. Third contribution of the herpetology of the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (13): 793-815 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Vázquez Díaz, Joel;Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. 2005. Anfibios y Reptiles de Aguascalientes [2nd ed.]. CONABIO, CIEMA, 318 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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