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Holbrookia maculata GIRARD, 1851

IUCN Red List - Holbrookia maculata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesHolbrookia maculata bunkeri SMITH 1935
Holbrookia maculata campi SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia maculata dickersonae SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia maculata flavilenta COPE 1883
Holbrookia maculata maculata GIRARD, 1851
Holbrookia maculata perspicua AXTELL 1956
Holbrookia maculata pulchra SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia maculata ruthveni SMITH 1943: 342 
Common NamesLesser Earless Lizard
bunkeri: Bunker’s Earless Lizard
dickersonae:
elegans:
maculata: Northern Earless Lizard
perspicua: Eastern Earless Lizard
pulchra: Huachuca Earless Lizard
ruthveni: Bleached Earless Lizard
thermophila: Western Earless Lizard 
SynonymHolbrookia maculata GIRARD 1851
Holbrookia maculata — BOULENGER 1885: 209
Holbrookia maculata — STEBBINS 1985: 116
Holbrookia maculata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 100
Holbrookia maculata — LINER 1994

Holbrookia maculata campi SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia maculata campi — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Holbrookia maculata flavilenta COPE 1883
Holbrookia maculata flavilenta — SCHMIDT 1922: 720
Holbrookia maculata flavilenta — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Holbrookia maculata bunkeri SMITH 1935
Holbrookia bunkeri SMITH 1935: 185
Holbrookia maculata bunkeri — CROTHER 2000: 45
Holbrookia maculata bunkeri — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Holbrookia maculata dickersonae SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia dickersonae SCHMIDT 1921: 2
Holbrookia dickersonae — SMITH 1935: 188

Holbrookia maculata perspicua AXTELL 1956
Holbrookia maculata perspicua — CROTHER 2000: 45
Holbrookia maculata perspicua — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Holbrookia maculata pulchra SCHMIDT 1921 (see comment)
Holbrookia pulchra SCHMIDT 1921
Holbrookia maculata pulchra — CROTHER 2000: 46
Holbrookia maculata pulchra — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Holbrookia maculata ruthveni SMITH 1943
Holbrookia maculata flavilenta COPE 1883
Holbrookia maculata ruthveni — LAXALT 1970
Holbrookia maculata ruthveni — CROTHER 2000: 46
Holbrookia maculata ruthveni — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, New Mexico, N/W Texas, SE Utah, SW/E Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, S South Dakota, SE Wyoming),
Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon, Aguascalientes)

Type locality: “opposite Grand Island, Platte River, Colorado” (SCHMIDT 1922: 719)

bunkeri: Mexico (Chihuahua); Type locality: 15 miles south of Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico;

campi: Arizona; type locality: 8 miles N.W. of Adamana, Apache County, Arizona, USA.

dickersonae: Mexico (Coahuila); type locality: Castanuelas and Alamos de Parras, Coahuila, Mexico.

elegans: USA (New Mexico), Mexico: Chihuahua (LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2002, HR 33: 225)

flavilenta: N Arizona, W New Mexico; type locality: Lake Valley, New Mexico (SCHMIDT 1922), 32°43' N, 107°34' W [Malnate 1971: 358].

maculata: N Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma

perspicua: N Texas, Oklahoma

ruthveni: USA (New Mexico) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-167931, R-542
Holotype: KU 19236 David H. Dunkle and Hobart M. Smith; June 19, 1934. Formerly this specimen was H. M. Smith No. 80, as given in the original description [bunkeri]
Holotype: AMNH [campi]
Holoytpe: USNM [dickersonae] 
CommentSubspecies: Holbrookia maculata pulchra has been considered a synonym of H. m. thermophila by DUELLMAN (1955) and subsequent authors. The subspecies is not listed by BOUNDY et al. 2012. H. m. thermophila is closely related to the Mexican endemic H. m elegans and these two have been considered as a separate species (H. elegans) and subspecies (H. e. thermophila) fide WILGENBUSCH & DE QUEIROZ 2000 and CROTHER 2000. For a discussion of flavilenta see CMIWEB. Holbrookia maculata approximans is now considered as a valid species.

Phylogenetics: Schulte & DE QUEIROZ (2008) showed that Holbrookia maculata is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Holbrookia propinqua.

Lectotype: ANSP 12664 [Holbrookia maculata flavilenta] 
EtymologyNamed after John Edwards Holbrook (1794-1871) and its spotted pattern (Latin “maculata”). See Moll (2007) for a short biography. 
References
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1956. A solution to the long neglected Holbrookia lacerata problem, and the description of two new subspecies of Holbrookia. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10 (11): 163-179
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  • Malnate, Edmund V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
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  • Roches, Simone Des; Jack Torresdal, Travis W. Morgan, Luke J. Harmon and Erica B. Rosenblum 2014. Beyond black and white: divergent behaviour and performance in three rapidly evolving lizard species at White Sands. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111 (1): 169–182, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12165 - get paper here
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  • Schulte, J.A. & de Queiroz, K. 2008. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND HETEROGENEOUS EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AMONG PHRYNOSOMATINE SAND LIZARDS (SQUAMATA, IGUANIDAE) REVISITED. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 700-716 - get paper here
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  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
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