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Holbrookia propinqua BAIRD & GIRARD, 1852

IUCN Red List - Holbrookia propinqua - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesHolbrookia propinqua propinqua BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Holbrookia propinqua piperata SMITH & BURGER 1950 
Common NamesE: Keeled Earless Lizard
E: Northern Keeled Earless Lizard [propinqua]
S: Lagartija Sorda Carinada 
SynonymHolbrookia propinqua BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Holbrookia propinqua — BOULENGER 1885: 208
Holbrookia propinqua — SCHMIDT 1922: 714
Holbrookia propinqua stonei HARPER 1932
Holbrookia propinqua propinqua — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 85
Holbrookia propinqua — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 101
Holbrookia propinqua — LINER 1994
Holbrookia propinqua — LINER 2007

Holbrookia propinqua piperata SMITH & BURGER 1950
Holbrookia propinqua piperata SMITH & BURGER 1950: 167
Holbrookia propinqua piperata — AXTELL 1983
Holbrookia propinqua piperata — LINER 2007 
DistributionUSA (S Texas),
Mexico (E Tamaulipas, N Veracruz)

Type locality: Between Indianola and San Antonio, Texas. Restricted to 9 miles southwest of Somerset, Atascosa County, by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

piperata: Type locality: Mexico: Etiopa, 2 mi S of Tecolutla, Veracruz.

propinqua: S Texas, Mexico (Tamaulipas); Type locality: Between Indianola and San Antonio, Texas.

stonei: Texas; Type locality: Padre Island, Texas.  
TypesLectotype: USNM 2671, desgnation by Axtell 1981: 211. Given as “unknown” by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 85.
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 4048; P.W. Smith, and R.W. Reese; April 24, 1949 [piperata]
Holotype: ANSP 19879 [stonei] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized, slender Holbrookia of the maculata species group (sensu Axtell, 1958). Average and maximum snout-vent lengths for mature males are 49.8 and 60.0 mm; for females 48.1 and 56.0 mm. The tail is slightly flattened dorsoventrally, and averages 1.35 and 1.08 times SVL in adult males and females, respectively. The head is slightly elongated and depressed, with keeled, angled (ca. 9° from horizontal) supralabials. The enlarged dorsal head scales are smooth, slightly convex, and unsculptured. There are one to three rows of minute circum- orbitals between the enlarged frontals and the supraoculars. The keeled dorsal scales are tiny, 146-177 from the interparietal to the posterior edge of the hindlimb, and 25-52 in one snout-interparietal length (counted posteriorly from the anterior edge of the forelimb). Femoral pores vary from 14 to 41 (x = 29.9, ± 0.18). The dorsal pattern consists of four rows of brownish blotches on a pale grayish-tan ground. This blotching may be obliterated (especially in coastal populations) by white speckling in mature males and general bleaching in females. The paravertebral rows of larger blotches converge on the tail to form narrow, distally pointing, sharp-tipped V's. A pale zone separating the paravertebral and dorsolateral blotch rows extends from behind the eye to the tail. White scales along the anterior part of this zone usually appear as distinct light lateral nuchal stripes. The lateral-abdominal dark bars are black and elongate (3-4 times longer than broad) in adult males, grayish and less attenuate in females and young. There may be a faint trace of bluish-gray pigment around the bars in males. The gular region is either completely suffused or obscurely barred with fine melanic stippling. The remaining ventral side is unmarked opaque white. During the reproductive season, the sides of the head, neck, trunk, proximal limb joints and the underside of the tail become creamy, yellow, or even reddish in mature males. In ovigerous females hormonally sensitive areas become yellow to bright vermillion, or both (Axtell 1983).

DEFINITION (piperata): Enlarged, keeled canthal scales one or two (on each side); four subequal gulars transversely arranged following the anteriormost chinshields; dorsal pattern punctuated with many minute black specks; post-femoral stripe complete, or essentially complete, and dark (Axtell 1983). 
CommentSynonymy: H. p. stonei has been considered a synonym of proinqua at least since Schmidt 1953, hence is not listed by CROTHER (2000), nor Liner 2007.

Phylogenetics: Schulte & DE QUEIROZ (2008) showed that Holbrookia maculata is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Holbrookia propinqua. 
EtymologyFrom the Latin propinquus, meaning "near," implying nearness to H. maculata. Piperata (Latin) means "peppery, in allusion to the black dorsal speckling. 
  • Adams, C.S. & W.E. Cooper, Jr. 1988. Oviductal Morphology and Sperm Storage in the Keeled Earless Lizard, Holbrookia propinqua Herpetologica 44 (2): 190-197. - get paper here
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1981. Holbrookia Propinqua: Type specimens, collector, his route, and restriction of locality, with comments on Baird's "Reptiles of the Boundary" as an important taxonomic reference. Journal of Herpetology 15 (2): 211-217 - get paper here
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1983. Holbrookia propinqua. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (341): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Baird, S.F. and Girard,C. 1852. Characteristics of some new reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, part 2. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 125-129 - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boundy, Jeff 1994. County records for Texas amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 25 (3): 129 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cooper Jr, William E. 1984. Female secondary sexual coloration and sex recognition in the keeled earless lizard, Holbrookia propinqua. Animal Behaviour 32: 1142-1150 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cooper, W.E. 1986. Chromatic components of female secondary sexual colouration: influence on social behaviour of male keeled earless lizards (Holbrookia propinqua) Copeia 1986 (4): 980-986. - get paper here
  • Cooper, W.E., Jr. 1985. Female residency and courtship intensity in a territorial lizard, Holbrookia propinqua Amphibia-Reptilia, 6(1): 63-69. - get paper here
  • Cooper, W.E., Jr. & R.F. Clarke 1982. Steroidal Induction of Female Reproductive Coloration in the Keeled Earless Lizard, Holbrookia propinqua Herpetologica 38 (3): 425-429. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1880. On the zoological position of Texas. Bull. US Natl. Mus., No. 17: 1-51 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Duran M 2021. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of North Padre Island, Texas, USA, with comparisons to adjacent barrier island and mainland herpetofauna. ZooKeys 1073: 119-175 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Harper, Francis 1932. A new Texas subspecies of the lizard genus Holbrookia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 45: 15-18 - get paper here
  • Judd, F.W. 1974. Intraspecific Variation in Blood Properties of the Keeled Earless Lizard, Holbrookia propinqua Herpetologica 30 (1): 99-102. - get paper here
  • Judd, F.W. 1975. Activity and Thermal Ecology of the Keeled Earless Lizard, Holbrookia propinqua Herpetologica 31 (2): 137-150. - get paper here
  • Judd, F.W. & R.K. Ross 1978. Year-to-Year Variation in Clutch Size of Island and Mainland Populations of Holbrookia propinqua (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 12 (2): 203-207. - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Lyons, Jacob I. N.; Thomas R. Simpson, and Francis L. Rose 2014. Morphology of an inland population of the keeled earless lizard (Holbrookia propinqua). Southwestern Naturalist Jun 2014, Vol. 59, No. 2: 306-312. - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Ross, R.K. & F.W. Judd 1982. Comparison of Lipid Cycles of Holbrookia propinqua from Padre Island and Mainland Texas Journal of Herpetology 16 (1): 53-60. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl Patterson 1922. A review of the North American genus of lizards Holbrookia. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46 (12): 709-725 - get paper here
  • Smith, H. M., & Burger, W.L. 1950. Herpetological results of the University of Illinois field expedition, Spring 1949. III. Sauria. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 53 (2): 165-175 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Torres-Hernández, LA, Ramírez-Bautista A, Cruz-Elizalde R, Hernández-Salinas U, Berriozabal-Islas C, DeSantis DL, Johnson JD, Rocha A, García-Padilla E, Mata-Silva V, Fucsko LA, and Wilson LD. 2021. The herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 15(2) [General Section]: 72–155 - get paper here
  • Weidler, J M 2019. Protected areas of Texas in relation to Texas reptiles. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 462-473 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2018. Der Große Treck. Teil 6: Den Rio Grande entlang. Reptilia 23 (130): 68-78
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