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Holbrookia subcaudalis AXTELL, 1956

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Southern Earless Lizard, Southern Spot-tailed Earless Lizard
S: Lagartija Sorda Meridional 
SynonymHolbrookia lacerata subcaudalis AXTELL 1956
Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis — LINER et al. 1993
Holbrookia subcaudalis — LINER 1994
Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis — LINER 2007
Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis — ROELKE et al. 2018
Holbrookia subcaudalis — HIBBITTS et al. 2019 
DistributionMexico (Tamaulipas ?, N Nuevo Leon), USA (Texas)

Type locality: "In plowed field 4.8 miles east northeast (27° 36' N, 97° 45' W) of Bishop, Nueces County, Texas. Elevation 75 feet."  
TypesHolotype: TNHC 20,000, adult male (R. Axtell, pers. comm., 21 May 2014) 
DiagnosisOriginal diagnosis: Axtell 1956: 174

Definition. “The maximum and average snout-vent lengths are 70.8 and 61.0 mm. respectively. Most of the paravertebral and dorsolateral body blotches are separated medially into two distinct series. The dark blotches on the hind legs form circular or semicircular markings, not crossbands. The sum of the femoral pores is 28 or more (93%) in both sexes. The tail is longer than the snout-vent length in 82 per cent of males, but shorter in most females and young. The hind legs average 80 per cent of snout-vent length in males, 75 per cent in females. The males, so far as is known, exhibit no reddish suffusion at any time. Occasionally they become yellowish or greenish during the breeding season as do all females of both races.” (Axtell 1968) 
CommentDistribution: Not in Coahuila fide Lazcano et al. 2019. 
EtymologyThe name subcaudalis, from the Latin sub = "below," and cauda "tail," refers to the distinctive subcaudal dark spots which are characteristic of this species. The common name, spot-tailed earless lizard, refers to this same character. 
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1956. A solution to the long neglected Holbrookia lacerata problem, and the description of two new subspecies of Holbrookia. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10 (11): 163-179
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Duran M 2021. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of North Padre Island, Texas, USA, with comparisons to adjacent barrier island and mainland herpetofauna. ZooKeys 1073: 119-175 - get paper here
  • HIBBITTS, TOBY J.; WADE A. RYBERG, JOHANNA A. HARVEY, GARY VOELKER, A. MICHELLE LAWING, CONNOR S. ADAMS, DALTON B. NEUHARTH, DREW E. DITTMER, C. MICHAEL DURAN, BRAD D. WOLAVER, JON PAUL PIERRE, BENJAMIN J. LABAY, TRAVIS J. LADUC 2019. Phylogenetic structure of Holbrookia lacerata (Cope 1880) (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae): one species or two? Zootaxa 4619 (1): - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 550 pp.
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A.;Montanucci, Richard R.;González-Alonso, Arturo;Mendoza Quijano, Fernando 1993. An additional contribution to the herpetology of Northern Coahuila, Mexico. Bol. Soc. Herpetol. Mex. 5 (1): 9-11 - get paper here
  • Maldonado, Jose A. 2022. Signatures of Genome Evolution in Two Divergent Lizard Species from Texas. PhD thesis, UTA, - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Roelke, Corey E.; Jose A. Maldonado, Blake W. Pope, Thomas J. Firneno Jr, Travis J. Laduc, Toby J. Hibbitts, Wade A. Ryberg, Nathan D. Rains & Matthew K. Fujita 2018. Mitochondrial genetic variation within and between Holbrookia lacerata lacerata and Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis, the spot-tailed earless lizards of Texas. Journal of Natural History 52: 1017-1027
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