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Hydromedusa maximiliani (MIKAN, 1820)

IUCN Red List - Hydromedusa maximiliani - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Hydromedusinae, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesE: Maximilian’s Snake-headed Turtle
G: Brasilianische Schlangenhalsschildkröte 
SynonymEmys maximiliani MIKAN 1820
Chelodina Flavilabris DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 446
Chelodina Maximiliani [sic] — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 449
Hydromedusa maximiliana GRAY 1844 (nom. subst. pro E. maximiliani)
Hydromedusa subdepressa GRAY 1855: 68
Hydromedusa depressa GRAY 1855 (nom. subst. pro H. subdepressa)
Hydromedusa bankae GIEBEL 1866 (1860 fide GÜNTHER 1884)
Chelomedusa flavilabris — GRAY 1873: 301 (fide GÜNTHER 1884)
Hydromedusa flavilabris — GRAY 1873: 167
Hydromedusa Maximiliani — GÜNTHER 1884: 422
Hydromedusa maximiliani — BOULENGER 1889
Hydromedusa maximiliani — ALDERTON 1988 
DistributionBrazil (S Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo)

Type locality: "Capitania St. Paulo" (=Sao Paulo), Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: NMW 23391 
CommentMax. carapace length 198 mm.

Reproduction: oviparous. 
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • de Souza, Franco Leandro 1995. Hydromedusa maximiliani. Juvenile morphology Herpetological Review 26 (1): 34 - get paper here
  • de Souza, Franco Leandro & Martins, F.I. 2009. Hydromedusa maximiliani (Mikan 1825) – Maximilian’s Snake-Necked Turtle, Brazilian Snake-Necked Turtle. Chelonian Research Monographs, No. 5: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Famelli, Shirley; Sarah Cristina Piacentini Pinheiro, Franco Leandro Souza, Rafael Morais Chiaravall 2012. Population Viability Analysis of a Long-Lived Freshwater Turtle, Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines: Chelidae) Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2012, Vol. 11, No. 2: 162-169. - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. 1977. The side-necked turtle family Chelidae: a theory of relationships using shared derived characters American Museum Novitates (2620): 1-28 - get paper here
  • Giebel, C. 1860. Zeitschrift für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften, Berlin, 17: ta, iv
  • Gray, J. E. 1873. Observations on chelonians, with descriptions of new genera and species. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 289-308 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1855. Description of a new genus and some new species of tortoises. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 15: 67-69 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1873. On the original form, development, and cohesion of the bones of the sternum of chelonians; with notes on the skeleton of Sphargis. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 161-172 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1884. Contribution to our knowledge of Hydromedusa, a genus of South-American freshwater turtles. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 14: 421-425 - get paper here
  • Martins, Fernando I. and Franco L. Souza 2009. Demographic Parameters of the Neotropical Freshwater Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae). Herpetologica 65 (1): 82-91 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Bemerkenswerte Süßwasserschildkröten aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48 (1): 71-82
  • Mikan, J.C. 1820. Delectus Florae et Faunae Brasiliensis. Antonii Strauss. Wien. 54 pp.
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1839. Zur Osteologie der Hydromedusa maximiliani [Müller's] Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 1839: 280-289, 1 plate
  • Souza, F. L. 2005. Hydromedusa maximiliani - The Brazilian Snake-Necked Turtle. Reptilia (GB) (40): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Souza, F.L. 2007. Hydromedusa maximiliani - die Brasilianische Schlangenhalsschildkröte. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (64): 75-79 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L.; Martins, Fernando I. 2006. Body temperature of free-living freshwater turtles, Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines, Chelidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (3): 464-468 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco; Cunha, Anderson F.; Oliveira, Marcos A.; Pereira, Gonçalo; dos Reis, Sérgio F. 2002. Estimating Dispersal and Gene Flow in the Neotropical Freshwater Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae) by Combining Ecological and Genetic Methods. Genetics and Molecular Biology 25 (2): 151-155.
  • Valverde, J. 2010. Schlangenhalsschildkröten Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 16-23 [erratum in 86: 10] - get paper here
  • Winkler, J.D. 2006. Testing phylogenetic implications of eggshell characters in side-necked turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira). Zoology 109: 127-136
  • Wood, R. C., and R. T. J. Moody. 1976. Unique Arrangement of Carapace Bones in the South American Chelid Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Mikan). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, London 59:69-78
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