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Hydromedusa maximiliani (MIKAN, 1820)

IUCN Red List - Hydromedusa maximiliani - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Hydromedusinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesE: Maximilian’s Snake-headed Turtle
G: Brasilianische Schlangenhalsschildkröte 
SynonymEmys maximiliani MIKAN 1820
Chelodina Flavilabris DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 446
Chelodina Maximiliani [sic] — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 449
Hydromedusa maximiliana GRAY 1844 (nom. subst. pro E. maximiliani)
Hydromedusa subdepressa GRAY 1855: 68
Hydromedusa depressa GRAY 1855 (nom. subst. pro H. subdepressa)
Hydromedusa bankae GIEBEL 1866
Chelomedusa flavilabris — GRAY 1873: 301 (fide GÜNTHER 1884)
Hydromedusa flavilabris — GRAY 1873: 167
Hydromedusa Maximiliani — GÜNTHER 1884: 422
Hydromedusa maximiliani — BOULENGER 1889
Hydromedusa maximiliani — ALDERTON 1988
Hydromedusa maximiliani — TTWG 2014 
DistributionBrazil (S Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo)

Type locality: "Capitania St. Paulo" (=Sao Paulo), Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: NMW 23391 
CommentType species: Emys maximiliani MIKAN 1820 is the type species of the genus Hydromedusa WAGLER 1830: 135.

Habitat: freshwater (Small rivers) 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Campinhos, E. C., A. T. Monico, W. D. Lauvers and R. B. G. Clemente-Carvalho 2016. Hydromedusa maximiliani (Tartaruga Pescoco-de-serpente, Maximilian's Snake-necked Turtle) parasitism. Herpetological Review 47(3): 448-449. - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C.; Daniella T. de Rezende, Flavio B. Molina, Luciana B. Nascimento, Felipe S.F. Leite, and Ana Paula B. Fernandes 2015. New Distribution Records and Potentially Suitable Areas for the Threatened Snake-Necked Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines: Chelidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 14 (1): 88-94.
  • de Souza, Franco Leandro 1995. Hydromedusa maximiliani. Juvenile morphology. Herpetological Review 26 (1): 34 - get paper here
  • de Souza, Franco Leandro & Martins, F.I. 2009. Hydromedusa maximiliani (Mikan 1825) – Maximilian’s Snake-Necked Turtle, Brazilian Snake-Necked Turtle. Chelonian Research Monographs, No. 5: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Famelli, Shirley, Franco L. Souza, Arthur Georges and Jaime Bertoluci. 2016. Movement patterns and activity of the Brazilian snake-necked turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines: Chelidae) in southeastern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 37 (2): 215-228 - get paper here
  • Famelli, Shirley; Leonardo R. Adriano, Sarah C. P. Pinheiro, Franco L. Souza, and Jaime Bertoluci 2014. Reproductive Biology of the Freshwater Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae) from Southeastern Brazil. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2014, Vol. 13, No. 1: 81-88. - get paper here
  • Famelli, Shirley; Sarah Cristina Piacentini Pinheiro, Franco Leandro Souza, Rafael Morais Chiaravalloti, and Jaime Bertoluci 2012. Population Viability Analysis of a Long-Lived Freshwater Turtle, Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines: Chelidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2012, Vol. 11, No. 2: 162-169. - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Iuri Ribeiro Dias, Elbano Paschoal de Figueiredo Moraes 2018. Herpetofauna from Serra da Jibóia, an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 59-72 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva, Patrícia Mendes Fonseca, Breno Hamdan, Thiago Filadelfo 2019. Herpetofauna of Serra do Timbó, an Atlantic Forest remnant in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil Herpetology Notes 12: 245-260 - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. 1977. The side-necked turtle family Chelidae: a theory of relationships using shared derived characters. American Museum Novitates (2620): 1-28 - get paper here
  • Giebel, C. 1866. Die Schildkröten der Insel Banka. Zeitschrift für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften, Berlin 27:11–21
  • Gray, J. E. 1873. Observations on chelonians, with descriptions of new genera and species. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 289-308 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1855. Description of a new genus and some new species of tortoises. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 15: 67-69 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1873. On the original form, development, and cohesion of the bones of the sternum of chelonians; with notes on the skeleton of Sphargis. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 161-172 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1884. Contribution to our knowledge of Hydromedusa, a genus of South-American freshwater turtles. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 14: 421-425 - get paper here
  • Martins, Fernando I. and Franco L. Souza 2009. Demographic Parameters of the Neotropical Freshwater Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae). Herpetologica 65 (1): 82-91 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Bemerkenswerte Süßwasserschildkröten aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48 (1): 71-82
  • Mikan, J.C. 1820. Delectus Florae et Faunae Brasiliensis. Antonii Strauss. Wien. 54 pp.
  • Novelli, Iara Alves; Samuel Campos Gomides, Sônia Sin Singer Brugiolo, and Bernadete Maria de Sousa. 2013. Alimentary habits of Hydromedusa maximiliani (Mikan, 1820) (Testudines, Chelidae) and its relation to prey availability in the environment. Herpetology Notes 6: 503-511. - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1839. Zur Osteologie der Hydromedusa maximiliani. Müller's Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 1839: 280-289, 1 plate
  • Souza, F. L. 2005. Hydromedusa maximiliani - The Brazilian Snake-Necked Turtle. Reptilia (GB) (40): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Souza, F.L. 2007. Hydromedusa maximiliani - die Brasilianische Schlangenhalsschildkröte. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (64): 75-79 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L.; Martins, Fernando I. 2006. Body temperature of free-living freshwater turtles, Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines, Chelidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (3): 464-468 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco; Cunha, Anderson F.; Oliveira, Marcos A.; Pereira, Gonçalo; dos Reis, Sérgio F. 2002. Estimating Dispersal and Gene Flow in the Neotropical Freshwater Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae) by Combining Ecological and Genetic Methods. Genetics and Molecular Biology 25 (2): 151-155.
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Valverde, J. 2010. Schlangenhalsschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 16-23 [erratum in 86: 10] - get paper here
  • Winkler, J.D. 2006. Testing phylogenetic implications of eggshell characters in side-necked turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira). Zoology 109: 127-136
  • Wood, R. C., and R. T. J. Moody. 1976. Unique Arrangement of Carapace Bones in the South American Chelid Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Mikan). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, London 59:69-78
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