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Hydrophis gracilis (SHAW, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Hydrophis gracilis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesGraceful small-headed or slender seasnake, common small-headed sea snake 
SynonymHydrus Gracilis SHAW 1802: 560
Disteira gracilis — FITZINGER 1826: 55
Microcephalophis gracilis — LESSON 1834
Hydrus kadellnagam BOIE 1827 (based on RUSSELL 1801)
Thalassophis microcephala SCHMIDT 1852: 78
Hydrophis microcephalus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1356
Hydrophis Gracilis — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1352
Hydrophis microcephala — FISCHER 1856: 53
Hydrophis gracilis — FISCHER 1856: 54
Hydrophis leprogaster DUMÉRIL & BIBRON in FISCHER 1856: 53 (nom. nud.)
Hydrophis gracilis — GÜNTHER 1864: 373
Hydophis Guntheri MURRAY 1884: 384
Hydrophis gracilis — BOULENGER 1896: 280
Distira gracilis — WALL 1909
Hydrophis rostralis SMITH 1917: 340
Microcephalophis gracilis — WALL 1921: 325
Microcephalophis gracilis gracilis SMITH 1926
Microcephalophis gracilis — SMITH 1943: 472
Hydrophis gracilis — BAUER & VINDUM 1990
Hydrophis gracilis — WELCH 1994: 67
Microcephalophis gracilis — DAS 1996: 61
Hydrophis gracilis — COGGER 2000: 716
Microcephalophis gracilis — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2001
Hydrophis gracilis — LEVITON et al. 2003
Hydrophis (Microcephalophis) gracilis — KHARIN 2004
Hydrophis gracilis — DAVID et al. 2004
Microcephalophis gracilis microcephalus — KHARIN 2005
Hydrophis gracilis — GREER 2006 (online)
Hydrophis gracilis — SANG et al. 2009
Hydrophis gracilis — MURTHY 2010
Hydrophis gracilis — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Microcephalophis gracilis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 439 
DistributionIndian Ocean (Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Philippines)
South China Sea northward to the coast of Fujian (China), Vietnam,
Persian Gulf to Bay of Bengal (Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran)
Coast of Peninsular Malaysia through Indoaustralian Archipelago to New Guinea,
Australia (Queensland), Melanesia, Indonesia

Type locality: not given (fide O’SHEA 1996) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.3.89
Syntype: ZMH R03347 [Thalassophis microcephalus] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy partly after COGGER 1983 and STEJNEGER 1907.

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS (DIAGNOSIS).— Head small, body long and slender anteriorly; scales on thickest part of body juxtaposed; 5-6 maxillary teeth behind fangs; 17–21 scale rows around neck, 30–36 around thickest part of body (increase from neck to midbody 18–24); ventrals divided by a longitudinal fissure; prefrontal in contact with third upper labial; ventrals 220–287. Total length males 950 mm, females 1025 mm; tail length males 80 mm, females 95 mm. [after LEVITON 2003, but see also RASMUSSEN et al. 2011]

Distribution: Erroneously reported from New Caledonia fide BAUER & SADLIER 2000.

Habitat: marine.

Size: 122 cm. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “gracilis”, meaning small or lanky, or gracile. 
References
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