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Hydrophis lapemoides (GRAY, 1849)

IUCN Red List - Hydrophis lapemoides - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Persian Gulf Sea Snake
Farsi: Mâr-e daryâï-ye khalij-e fârs 
SynonymAturia lapemoides GRAY 1849: 46
Hydrophis lapemoides GÜNTHER 1864
Hydrophis holdsworthii GÜNTHER 1872
Hydrophis stewartii ANDERSON 1872
Hydrophis dayanus STOLICZKA 1872:89 (fide BOULENGER 1890:412)
Distira lapemoides — WERNER 1895
Distira lapemoides — WALL 1909
Lioselasma [sic] lapemidoides [sic]— WALL 1921: 366
Hydrophis lapemoides SMITH 1926
Hydrophis lapemoides — SMITH 1943: 461
Hydrophis lapemidoides [sic] KENNEDY 1937
Aturia lapemoides — WELCH 1994: 25
Chitulia lapemoides — KHARIN 2005
Chitulia lapemoides — KHARIN & DOTSENKO 2012
Hydrophis lapemoides — SANDERS et al. 2012
Chitulia (Chitulia) stewartii — KHARIN 2012
Chitulia (Chitulia) lapemoides — KHARIN 2012
Chitulia lapemoides — WALLACH et al. 2014: 166
Chitulia lapemoides — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 277 
DistributionIndian Ocean, Persian Gulf
coasts off Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India
Malaysia (Penang island), Singapore, Thailand

Type locality: Ceylon, Madras; restricted to Ceylon by TAYLOR 1950. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesLectotype, BMNH 1946.1.7.2 (orig. III.3.3.a), a 610 mm female (Zool. Soc. London), designated by Günther, 1864a: 375. 
CommentVenomous!

Distribution: Not listed by GRANDISON 1977 for West Malaysia or Singapore.

Diagnosis. Head slightly small (Figure 22); [8 supralabials, second in contact with prefrontal, third and fourth or third, fourth and fifth touch eye (Gasperetti 1988)] (Figure 21); body elongate but not markedly slender anteriorly (Figure 22); [290–404 ventrals (Volsøe 1939)], slightly distinguishable from adjacent scales (Figure 4d); body scales in thickest part of body more or less quadrangular or hexagonal in shape and juxtaposed; [29–31 scale rows on neck, 41–46 on body (Volsøe 1939; REZAIE-ATAGHOLIPOUR et al. 2016: 153).

Habitat: marine. 
References
  • Bussarawitt,S.; Rasmussen, A.R. & Andersen, M. 1989. A preliminary study on sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) from Phuket Harbor, Phuket Island, Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc., Bangkok 37 (2): 209-225
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965) - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Kharin, V.E 2012. Sea Snakes of the Genus Chitulia Gray, 1849 (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). The Taxonomic Status of Intrageneric Complexes. Russian Journal of Marine Biolog 38 (6): 456-458
  • Kharin, V.E. & Dotsenko I.B. 2012. The First Record of the Sea Snake Chitulia inornata Gray, 1849 from the Arabian Sea with Notes on the Composition of the Genus Chitulia Gray, 1849 (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). [in Russian and English]. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 38 (1): 35–42
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2007. On First Reliable Record of the Sea Snake Chitulia belcheri (Gray, 1849) from Australian Waters, with Notes on Species Composition and Taxonomic Status of the Genus Chitulia (Serpentes, Hydrophiidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33 (3): 161–165.
  • Rasmussen,A.R. 1993. The status of the Persian Gulf sea snake Hydrophis lapemoides (Gray 1849) (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae) [includes a redescription]. Bull. nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (zool.) 59 (2): 97-105
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Rezaie-Atagholipour M, Ghezellou P, Hesni MA, Dakhteh SMH, Ahmadian H, Vidal N 2016. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae) in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. ZooKeys 622: 129–164, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.622.9939
  • Sanders, K.L.; Michael S.Y. Lee, Mumpuni, Terry Bertozzi, Arne R. Rasmussen 2012. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 575-591 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Somaweera, R. & N. Somaweera 2009. An overview of Sri Lankan Sea snakes with an annotated checklist and a field key. Taprobanica 1 (1): 43-54
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1950. The snakes of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (14): 519-603 - get paper here
  • Volsøe, H. 1939. The sea-snakes of the Iranian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Danish Scientific Investigation in Iran 1: 9-45
  • Wall, FRANK 1921. Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo Mus. (H. R. Cottle, govt. printer), Colombo. xxii, 581 pages - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1895. Über eine Sammlung von Reptilien aus Persien, Mesopotamien und Arabien. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 45: 13-22 - get paper here
 
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