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Hydrophis ornatus (GRAY, 1842)

IUCN Red List - Hydrophis ornatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesHydrophis ornatus godeffroyi (PETERS 1873)
Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis (MITTLEMAN 1947)
Hydrophis ornatus ocellatus (GRAY 1849)
Hydrophis ornatus ornatus (GRAY 1842) 
Common NamesOrnate Reef seasnake 
SynonymAturia ornata GRAY 1842: 61
Hydrophis laevis LÜTKEN 1863
Hydrophis ellioti GÜNTHER 1864
Hydrophis ornata — GÜNTHER 1864
Hydrophis Ellioti — BOULENGER 1887: 408
Distira andamanica ANNANDALE 1905
Distira mjobergi LÖNNBERG & ANDERSSON 1913
Hydrophis lamberti SMITH 1917
Disteira ornata — TAYLOR 1922
Hydrophis inornatus — SMITH 1926
Hydrophis ornatus — SMITH 1943
Hydrophis ornatus — TAMIYA et al. 1983
Aturia ornata — WELCH 1994: 25
Hydrophis ornatus — MURPHY, COX & VORIS 1999
Hydrophis ornatus — COGGER 2000: 718
Chitulia ornata — KHARIN 2005
Hydrophis ornatus — SANG et al. 2009
Hydrophis ornatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 530
Hydrophis ornata — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Chitulia ornata — KHARIN & DOTSENKO 2012
Hydrophis ornatus — SANDERS et al. 2012

Hydrophis ornatus godeffroyi PETERS 1873
Hydrophis godeffroyi PETERS 1873
Distira godeffroyi — BOULENGER 1896: 291
Disteira godeffroyi — STEJNEGER 1907: 430
Hydrophis ornatus godeffroyi — SANG et al. 2009: 407

Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis MITTLEMAN 1947
Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis MITTLEMAN 1947
Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 254
Hydrophis ornatus maresianus — SANG et al. 2009: 407 (in error)

Hydrophis ornatus ocellata GRAY 1849
Hydrophis ornatus ocellatus GRAY 1849
Hydrophis ocellata GRAY 1849
Aturia ocellata — WELCH 1994: 25
Hydrophis ocellatus — HEATWOLE 1999
Chitulia ornata ocellata — KHARIN 2005
Hydrophis ornatus ocellatus — SANG et al. 2009: 407
Chitulia (Chitulia) ocellata — KHARIN 2012

Hydrophis ornatus ornatus (GRAY 1842)
Aturia ornata GRAY 1842
Distira ornata BOULENGER 1896
Hydrophis ornatus ornatus — SANG et al. 2009: 407 
DistributionIndian Ocean (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, New Guinea, Malaysia), Vietnam, Myanmar,
South Chinese Sea (China: Coasts of Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Shandong)
Persian Gulf (Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran,) through Indian Ocean
East to seas surrounding Indoaustralian Archipelago
Philippines, Gulf of Thailand
Japan (Ryukyu)
Australia (New South Wales, North Territory, Tasmania, Queensland, West Australia), New Caledonia/Loyalty Islands, Solomon Islands [McCoy 2000]

Type locality: not given Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.23.72
type: BM III.g.9.a [ocellatus]
type: ZMUC [laevis]
Holotype: NRM [Distira mjobergi]
Holotype: USNM 33933 (fide MITTLEMAN 1947)
Holotype: ZMB 7593 [godeffroyi] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: According to GOLAY et al. 1993, Hydrophis ornatus godeffroyi has been synonymized with Hydrophis ornatus ornatus. COGGER 2000 questions the validity of ocellatus without giving specific reasons.

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS (DIAGNOSIS).— Scales on thickest part of body more or less hexagonal in shape, feebly imbricate or juxtaposed; 10–13 maxillary teeth behind fangs; head large; body robust, not elongate, greatest diameter posteriorly about twice that of the neck; 1 preocular; 2 postoculars; 2 anterior temporals; 7–8 upper labials; scale rows on neck:•28–37,•31–45, on thickest part of body,•33–45,•39–55 (increase from neck to midbody 4–12); ventrals distinct throughout, in • 209–260, in •236–312, anteriorly ventrals about twice as large as adjacent scales, narrowing posteriorly; above grayish or light olive to almost white with broad dark bars or rhomboidal spots separated by narrow interspaces; below yellowish or whitish [after LEVITON 2003]

Size: Total length males 950 mm, females 860; tail length: males 115 mm, females 80 mm. 115 cm TL (RASMUSSEN 2011).

Habitat: marine. 
EtymologyHydrophis ornatus godeffroyi has been named after Johann Cesar Godeffroy (1813-1885), a German merchant who founded the Museum Godeffroy in 1861.  
References
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