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Hydrophis stokesii (GRAY, 1846)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesStoke’s seasnake 
SynonymHydrus Stokesii GRAY 1846: 502
Hydrus major SHAW 1802 (part.)
Astrotia stokesi — WALL 1909
Hydrophis schizopholis SCHMIDT 1846
Hydrus annulatus GRAY 1849
Hydrophis schizopholis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1357
Astrotia schizopholis — FISCHER 1856: 38
Hydrophis Güntheri THEOBALD 1868
Hydrophis granosa ANDERSON 1871: 190
Hydrophis guttata MURRAY 1887
Disteira stokesii - BOULENGER 1896
Astrotia stokesi — WALL 1921: 396
Astrotia stokesi — SMITH 1943: 471
Disteira stokesii — GRANDISON 1978: 296
Astrotia stokesii - COGGER 1983
Disteira stokesii — RASMUSSEN 1997
Astrotia stokesii — COGGER 2000: 706
Disteira stokesii — KHARIN 2005
Astrotia stokesii — SANG et al. 2009
Astrotia stokesii — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 518
Astrotia stokesii — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Hydrophis stokesii — SANDERS et al. 2012
Astrotia stokesii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 60
Astrotia stokesii — COGGER 2014: 813
Disteira stokesii — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 265 
DistributionChina Sea and Strait of Taiwan. Coastal areas from W India , and Sri Lanka Lanka west through Gulf of Siam, Thailand, to China Sea, W Malaysia, Vietnam
Indonesia east to New Guinea and the northern and eastern coast of Australia
SE Asian Sea (from Pakistan to Australia), Philippines
Arabian peninsula

Type locality: Australian Seas. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946. 1. 17. 12 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy after COGGER 1983.

Type species: Hydrophis schizopholis SCHMIDT 1846 is the type species of the genus Astrotia FISCHER 1855: 38.

Habitat: marine.

Diagnostic characters: Ventrals divided into pairs of foliform scales, except on throat. Body stout, covered with strongly imbricate scales. Scale rows around neck 37–47; scale rows around body 46–63; ventrals 226–286. Maxillary teeth behind fangs 6–7. Colouration: Highly variable; body ranging from brown to more creamy-white above, pale brown or whitish below. Sometimes has 24–36 dark or black bands above, each tapering to a point lat- erally. Some specimens have spots in between the bands, laterally as well as ventrally. 
References
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp.
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965) - get paper here
  • Dunson, William A.;Minton, Sherman A. 1978. Diversity, distribution, and Ecology of Philippine Marine Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 12 (3): 281-286 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78
  • Grandison, A. G. C. 1978. Snakes of West Malaysia and Singapore. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 81 [1977]: 283-303 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1846. Descriptions of some new Australian reptiles. In J. L. Stokes (editor), Discoveries in Australia; with an Account of the Coasts and Rivers Explored and Surveyed during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle in the Years 1837-38-39-40-41-42-43. T. and W. Boone, London. Volume 1, pp. 498-504 - get paper here
  • Kharin, V. E. 2006. An Annotated Checklist of Sea Snakes of Vietnam, with Notes on a New Record of the Yellow-Lipped Sea Krait, Laticauda colubrina (Schneider, 1799)(Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 32 (4): 223–228.
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2009. A Revision of the Sea Snakes of Subfamily Hydrophiinae. 1. Tribe Disteirini Nov. (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3):183-202 - get paper here
  • Kharin, Vladimir E.; Jakob Hallermann 2009. Annotated catalogue of sea kraits (Laticaudidae) and sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) of the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 106: 51-67
  • Mao, Shou-Hsian;Chen, Been-Yuan 1975. Disteira stokesi (Gray): an addition to the sea snake fauna of Taiwan. Herpetologica 31 (4): 456-458 - get paper here
  • Murray, J.A. 1887. Descriptions of three new species of Hydrophis from the Bombay harbour and the Mekran coast. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 2: 32-35 - get paper here
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; JOHAN ELMBERG, PETER GRAVLUND & IVAN INEICH 2011. Sea snakes (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) in Vietnam: a comprehensive checklist and an updated identification key. Zootaxa 2894: 1–20 - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; KATE LAURA SANDERS, MICHAEL L. GUINEA & ANDREW P. AMEY 2014. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key. Zootaxa 3869 (4): 351–371 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen,A.R. 1997. Systematics of sea snakes: a critical review. In: Thorpe,R.S., Wüster,W. & Malhotra,A. (eds.) Venomous snakes - ecology, evolution and snakebite. Clarendon Press (Oxford)/Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 70: 15-30
  • Sanders, K.L.; Michael S.Y. Lee, Mumpuni, Terry Bertozzi, Arne R. Rasmussen 2012. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 575-591 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Somaweera, R. & N. Somaweera 2009. An overview of Sri Lankan Sea snakes with an annotated checklist and a field key. Taprobanica 1 (1): 43-54
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Volsøe, H. 1939. The sea-snakes of the Iranian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Danish Scientific Investigation in Iran 1: 9-45
  • Wall, FRANK 1921. Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo Mus. (H. R. Cottle, govt. printer), Colombo. xxii, 581 pages - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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