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Hydrophis zweifeli (KHARIN, 1985)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sepik or Zweifel’s beaked seasnake 
SynonymEnhydrina zweifeli KHARIN 1985
Enhydrina zweifeli — MCCARTHY in GOLAY et al. 1993
Enhydrina zweifeli — KHARIN 2005
Hydrophis zweifeli — SANDERS et al. 2012 (by implication)
Enhydrina zweifeli — WALLACH et al. 2014: 269
Enhydrina zweifeli — COGGER 2014: 950 
DistributionPapua New Guinea, Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory)

Type locality: “off mouth of Sepik River, PNG”  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 104340 (probably - as text is in Russian) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: in KHARIN 2009 

Habitat: marine.

Only known from the holotype.

Diversity: Australian “E. schistosa” has been elevated to species status and provisionally referred to Enhydrina zweifeli by Ukuwela et al. 2013. 
EtymologyNamed after Richard George Zweifel (1926–2019), American herpetologist. See Cole & Zweifel 2020 for biographical details. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • COLE, C. J., AND M. K. ZWEIFEL 2020. Obituaries: Life History and Behavior of Richard George Zweifel (1926–2019). Herpetological Review 51: 189-193.
  • Golay,P, H.M. SMITH, D.G. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. [type catalogue] Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478.
  • Kharin V E 1985. A new species of sea snakes of the genus Enhydrina (Serpentes, Hydrophiidae) from waters of New Guinea. [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 64 (5): 785-787
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2009. A Revision of the Sea Snakes of Subfamily Hydrophiinae. 1. Tribe Disteirini Nov. (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3):183-202 - get paper here
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; KATE LAURA SANDERS, MICHAEL L. GUINEA & ANDREW P. AMEY 2014. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key. Zootaxa 3869 (4): 351–371 - get paper here
  • Sanders, K.L.; Michael S.Y. Lee, Mumpuni, Terry Bertozzi, Arne R. Rasmussen 2012. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 575-591 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, Kanishka D.B.; Anslem de Silva, Mumpuni, Bryan G. Fry, Michael S.Y. Lee, Kate L. Sanders 2012. Molecular evidence that the deadliest sea snake Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) consists of two convergent species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (1): 262-269 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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