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Hypsiglena chlorophaea COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesHypsiglena chlorophaea chlorophaea COPE 1860
Hypsiglena chlorophaea deserticola TANNER 1944
Hypsiglena chlorophaea loreala TANNER 1944
Hypsiglena chlorophaea tiburonensis TANNER 1981 
Common Namesdeserticola: Great Basin Nightsnake
loreala: Mesa Verde Nightsnake
tiburonensisa: Isla Tiburon Nightsnake
chlorophaea: Sonoran Nightsnake 
SynonymHypsiglena chlorophaea COPE 1860: 247
Hypsiglena torquata chlorophaea — TANNER 1985: 633
Hypsiglena torquata chlorophaea — CROTHER 2000: 63
Hypsiglena chlorophaea — MULCAHY 2008
Hypsiglena chlorophaea — CROTHER et al. 2012
Hypsiglena chlorophaea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 343

Hypsiglena chlorophaea deserticola TANNER 1946
Hypsiglena torquata deserticola TANNER 1946: 59 (1944)
Hypsiglena chlorophaea deserticola — MULCAHY 2008
Hypsiglena torquata — WEAVER 2008
Hypsiglena chlorophaea deserticola — CROTHER et al. 2012

Hypsiglena chlorophaea loreala TANNER 1944
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus lorealus TANNER 1946: 63 (1944)
Hypsiglena torquata loreala — CROTHER 2000: 63
Hypsiglena chlorophaea loreala — MULCAHY 2008
Hypsiglena chlorophaea loreala — CROTHER et al. 2012

Hypsiglena chlorophaea tiburonensis TANNER 1981
Hypsiglena torquata tiburonensis TANNER 1981
Hypsiglena chlorophaea tiburonensis — MULCAHY 2008 
Distributionchlorophaea: USA (Arizona, Nevada, E California, Utah, Idaho, Washington), Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa); Type locality: Arizona, Ft. Buchanan.

deserticola: Canada (S British Columbia), USA (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, NW Arizona), Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: small isolaed ridge which justs out into the valley and is near the road which leads from chimney rock pass to Fairfield, on the west side of Cedar Valley, between 3 and 4 miles northwest of Chimney Rock Pass, Utah Co. Utah”

loreala: USA (Utah, W Kansas, NW New Mexico, NE Arizona); Type locality: west edge of Castle Dale, Emery County, Utha.

tiburonensis: Mexico (Islas Tiburón and San Esteban) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3748-49;
Holotype: BYU, paratypes: UMMZ, BYU, USNM [deserticola]
Holotype: BYU, paratypes: Dixie College, UMMZ [loreala] 
CommentTANNER (1966) separated H. t. catalinae from H. torquata of the adjacent peninsula on the basis of the former having a single series of large dorsal spots, two rows of lateral spots, and a high number of ventral plus scutes (233-295). However, since these characters do not discretely diagnose catalinae GRISMER (1999) suggested to synonymize catalinae with H. torquata. MULCAHY (2008) considered catalinae as a valid subspecies (of Hypsiglena chlorophaea). Mulcahy et al. 2014 elevated Hypsiglena chlorophaea catalinae TANNER 1966 to full species status.

Distribution: see map of subspecies in Mulcahy et al. 2014. 
References
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Gregory, Linda. 2012. Hypsiglena chlorophaea Desert Night Snake - Couleuvre nocturne. The Canadian Herpetologist 2 (1): 4-5
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Mulcahy DG, Martínez-Gómez JE, Aguirre-León G, Cervantes-Pasqualli JA, Zug GR 2014. Rediscovery of an Endemic Vertebrate from the Remote Islas Revillagigedo in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: The Clarión Nightsnake Lost and Found. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97682. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097682 - get paper here
  • Mulcahy, Daniel G. 2008. Phylogeography and species boundaries of the western North American Nightsnake (Hypsiglena torquata): Revisiting the subspecies concept. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (3): 1095-1115 - get paper here
  • Pregill, Gregory K.;Berrian, James E. 1984. Type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the San Diego Natural History Museum. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (10): 151-164 - get paper here
  • Tanner, W. W. 1946. A taxonomic study of the genus Hypsiglena. Great Basin Naturalist 5 (3-4): 25-92 [1944] - get paper here
  • Tanner, W. W. 1981. A new Hypsiglena from Tiburon Island, Sonora, Mexico. Great Basin Naturalist 41 (1): 139-142 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1966. The night snakes of Baja California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 14 (15): 189-196 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Weaver, R. E. 2008. DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF THE NIGHT SNAKE (HYPSIGLENA TORQUATA ) IN WASHINGTON STATE. NORTHWESTERN NATURALIST 89:164–170
  • Weaver, Robert E. 2010. Diet and Reproductive Ecology of the Desert Nightsnake (Hypsiglena chlorophaea) in Central Washington State. Journal of Herpetology 44 (1): 148–152 - get paper here
  • Weaver, Robert E.; William H. Clark, and Daniel C. McEwen 2012. Prey Chemical Discrimination by the Desert Nightsnake (Hypsiglena chlorophaea): A Comparison of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Prey. Journal of Herpetology 46 (4): 523-526. - get paper here
  • WEAVER, ROBERT E; KENDRA S WEAVER, TONI M JOHNSON, AND EDWARD A MYERS 2010. A NEW RECORD SIZE FOR THE NORTHERN DESERT NIGHTSNAKE (HYPSIGLENA CHLOROPHAEA DESERTICOLA). NORTHWESTERN NATURALIST 91:218–220
 
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