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Hypsirhynchus ater (GOSSE, 1851)

IUCN Red List - Hypsirhynchus ater - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaDipsadidae, Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesJamaica Racer 
SynonymNatrix atra GOSSE 1851: 228
Natrix capistratus GOSSE 1851 (fide BOULENGER 1893)
Alsophis ater — GARMAN 1887: 282
Dromicus ater — BOULENGER 1894: 121
Leimadophis ater — BARBOUR 1910: 300
Alsophis ater — MAGLIO 1970
Alsophis ater - SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 568
Alsophis ater — CROTHER 1999
Alsophis ater — TIPTON 2005
Ocyophis ater — ZAHER et al. 2009
Hypsirhynchus ater — HEDGES et al. 2009
Ocyophis ater — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 
DistributionJamaica

Type locality: Jamaica. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.1.4.65, BMNH 1946.1.5.6. 
CommentConservation: Possibly extinct.

Type species: Natrix atra Gosse, 1851 is the type species of the genus Ocyophis COPE 1886 which was resurrected by Zaher et al. (2009) and GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012. The group of species that were assigned to Ocyophis is unsupported by data in HEDGES et al. 2009 though. A search for synonym = “Ocyophis Zaher 2009” will yield those species.

Diagnosis (Ocyophis): Hemipenis (only known for O. ater) semicalyculate, semi- capitate and deeply bilobed, with few well developed enlarged lateral spines arranged in two parallel rows; large papillate calyces forming the capitula, which are positioned laterally; row of large papilla ornamenting the lobular crotch [GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012].

Synonymy: Neither Zaher et al. (2009) nor Hedges et al. (2009) had tissue or sequence data. According to GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012, their allocation of O. ater and O. melanichnus to Hysirhynchus is unjustified. The assignment of O. ater to Hypsirhynchus is based on the absence of a loreal scale and on skull similarities taken from Maglio (1970). Whereas Maglio (1970) noted strong similarity between O. ater and Hypsirhynchus, his hypothesis of phyletic relationships (Maglio, 1970, fig. 18) places O. ater as the sister group of a lineage formed by Hypsirhynchus and Uromacer. Zaher (1999) remarked on the puzzling hemipenial morphology of O. ater (Fig. 3) and he avoided allocation for this species. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 52: 273—301 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Crother, Brian I. 1999. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WEST INDIAN XENODONTINE SNAKES (SERPENTES; COLUBRIDAE) WITH COMMENTS ON THE PHYLOGENY OF SOME MAINLAND XENODONTINES. Contemporary Herpetology 2 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Gosse, P. H. 1851. A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, London.
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • Henderson R W. Powell R. 1996. Alsophis ater. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (633): 1-2. - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Tipton, Bob L. 2005. Snakes of the Americas: Checklist and Lexicon. Krieger Publishing Company, Melbourne, Florida [review in Sauria 29 (1): 10]
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
 
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