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Hypsirhynchus callilaemus (GOSSE, 1851)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Jamaican Red Racer, Jamaican Red Groundsnake 
SynonymNatrix callilaema GOSSE 1851: 384
Dromicus callilaemus — GÜNTHER 1863: 357
Leimadophis callilaemus — BARBOUR 1910: 300
Dromicus callilaemus — GRANT 1939
Dromicus callilaemus — GRANT 1940: 123
Dromicus callilaemus — BUDEN 1966
Arrhyton callilaemum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 583
Darlingtonia callilaema — CROTHER 1999
Schwartzophis callilaemum — ZAHER et al. 2009
Hypsirhynchus callilaemus — HEDGES et al. 2009
Schwartzophis callilaemum — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Schwartzophis callilaemum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 651
Hypsirhynchus callilaemus — KRYSKO et al. 2015 

Type locality: Bluefields, Westmoreland Parish, Jamaica.  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.1.5.90 (designated by Buden 1966) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Schwartzophis): Complete loss of capitular calyces; presence of an apical awn (secondarily lost in S. funereum due to reduction of the distal region of the lobes); reduction or loss of hemipenial lobes (ZAHER et al. 2009). 
CommentFor illustrations see Buden, 1966.

Type species: Natrix callilaema GOSSE 1851 is the type species of the genus Schwartzophis ZAHER et al. 2009.

Synonymy: Schwartzophis was resurrected by GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 who noted that “Hedges et al. (2009) ignored the striking uniqueness in the hemipenial morphology of Schwartzophis, an omission that disserves morphological evidence (Fig. 3). Zaher (1999) noted hemipenial particularities in all three species of Schwartzophis (as the Arrhyton callilaemum Group); the almost unilobed hemipenis is unique among West Indian Xenodontinae (WIX). Among mainland components, it only occurs in Elapomorphini and Xenopholis. In contrast, all other xenodontines have bilobed hemipenes. Schwartzophis also differs from Hypsirhynchus and Antillophis in lacking calyces on the capitulum. The recognition of Schwartzophis allows the hemipenes to serve as a valuable diagnostic character.” 
  • Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 52: 273—301 - get paper here
  • Buden, D. W. 1966. An evaluation of Jamaican Dromicus (Serpentes, Colubridae) with the description of a new species. Breviora (238): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Gosse, P. H. 1851. A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, London. - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1939. Additional Data on Jamaican Snakes of the Genus Dromicus. Copeia 1939 (2): 105-106 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1940. The herpetology of Jamaica Il. The reptiles. Bull. Inst. Jamaica., Sci. Ser. 1: 61-148.
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Günther. A. 1863. Third account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 12: 348 - 365 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • Hedges,S.B. et al. 1992. Caribbean biogeography: molecular evidence for dispersal in West Indian terrestrial vertebrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 89: 1909-1913 - get paper here
  • KRYSKO, KENNETH L.; DAVID W. STEADMAN, LEROY P. NUÑEZ & DAVID S. LEE 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Caribbean dipsadid (Xenodontinae: Alsophiini) snakes, including identification of the first record from the Cay Sal Bank, The Bahamas. Zootaxa 4028 (3): 441–450 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
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