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Imantodes gemmistratus (COPE, 1861)

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Higher TaxaDipsadidae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesImantodes gemmistratus gemmistratus (COPE 1861)
Imantodes gemmistratus gracillimus (GÜNTHER 1895)
Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus (COPE 1887)
Imantodes gemmistratus luciodorsus OLIVER 1942
Imantodes gemmistratus oliveri SMITH 1942
Imantodes gemmistratus reticulatus (MÜLLER 1882)
Imantodes gemmistratus splendidus (GÜNTHER 1895) 
Common NamesCentral American Tree Snake 
SynonymHimantodes gemmistratus COPE 1861: 296
Dipsas gracillima - GÜNTHER 1895 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Dipsas splendida - GÜNTHER 1895 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Himantodes hemigenius COPE 1899
Himantodes gemmistratus — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 151
Imantodes gemmistratus — SMITH 1942: 385
Imantodes gemmistratus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 134
Imantodes gemnistratus [sic] — PÉREZ-SANTOS & MORENO 1988
Imantodes gemmistratus - VILLA et al. 1988
Imantodes gemmistratus — LINER 1994
Imantodes gemmistratus — SAVAGE 2002

Imantodes gemmistratus gemmistratus (COPE 1861)
Himantodes gemmistratus COPE 1861: 296
Himantodes cenchoa var. elegans JAN 1871
Leptognathus stratissima COPE 1886: 280
Imantodes gemmistratus gemmistratus — PETERS 1954: 24
Imantodes gemmistratus gemmistratus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970

Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus (COPE 1887)
Dipsas gemmistrata latistrata COPE 1887: 68
Imantodes latistratus — ZWEIFEL 1959
Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus — WEBB 1984

Imantodes gemmistratus luciodorsus OLIVER 1942
Imantodes luciodorsus OLIVER 1942
Imantodes gemmistratus luciodorsus — KLUGE 1984: 58

Imantodes gemmistratus oliveri SMITH 1942
Imantodes splendidus oliveri SMITH 1942: 388
Imantodes gemmistratus oliveri — PETERS 1954: 23
Imantodes gemmistratus oliveri — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Imantodes gemmistratus reticulatus KRAMER 1978 (fide SMITH et al. 1995) 
DistributionMexico (S Sonora, Sinaloa, Veracruz, Yucatan, Jalisco, Querétaro [HR 27: 213], Puebla, Campeche, Guerrero, Nayarit, Oaxaca), Guatemala, Honduras, Belize ?, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]

gracilimus: Mexico: Jalisco.

latistratus: Mexico; Type locality: Mexico, Valley of Toluca.

luciodorsus: Mexico (Campeche); Type locality: Balchacaj, across lake from Ciudad del Carmen.

Type locality: El Salvador Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: USNM
Syntypes: (3) ANSP 11302, 11677 (2 specs.) [latistratus]
Holotype: UMMZ [luciodorsus] 
CommentImantodes gemmistratus gracillimus has been considered as a valid species, i.e. Imantodes gracillimus, e.g. Ponce-Campos & Huerta-Ortega (1998: 177).

Behavior: nocturnal, shy

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. 
References
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Calderon, R.; Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R. & Pozo, C. 2003. New distributional records for amphibians and reptiles from Campeche, Mexico. Herpetological Review 34 (3): 269-272 - get paper here
  • Canseco-Marquez,L.; Gutierrez-Mayen,G. & Salazar-Arenas,J. 2000. New records and range extensions for amphibians and reptiles from Puebla, México. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 259-263 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 271-287 [1885]
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE STATE OF QUERETARO, MEXICO. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Max A. Nickerson 1976. Observations on the Behavioral Ecology of Three Species of Imantodes (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 10 (3): 205-210
  • Jan, G. 1870. Iconographie générale des ophidiens, Vol. 3, Livraisons 35-50. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris, (Milan ?), 188 pp. - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Mulcahy, D.G. 2007. Molecular systematics of neotropical cat-eyed snakes: a test of the monophyly of Leptodeirini (Colubridae: Dipsadinae) with implications for character evolution and biogeography. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 92: 483–500 - get paper here
  • Myers, C W 1982. Blunt-headed vine snakes (Imantodes) in Panama, including a new species and other revisionary notes. American Museum Novitates (2738): 1-50 - get paper here
  • Oliver, James A. 1942. A new snake of the genus Imantodes from Mexico. Copeia 1942 (1): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno,A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A. 1954. The amphibians and reptiles of the coast and coastal sierra of Michoacán, Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (554): 1-37
  • Ponce-Campos,P. & Huerta-Ortega,S.M. 1998. Imantodes gracillimus (Slender Blunthead Tree Snake). Mexico: Jalisco. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 177 - get paper here
  • Savage, J. M., & SCOTT, NORMAN J. 1987. The Imantodes (Serpentes: Colubridae) of Costa Rica: Two or three species?. Revista de Biologia Tropical 33: 107-132. - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Schmidt, K. P, & ANDREWS, E. W. 1936. Notes on snakes from Yucatán. Field Mus. Nat Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 167-187. - get paper here
  • Smith, H-M; Ramirez-Bautista, A; Chiszar, D. 1995. The nomenclatural status of Muller's two varietal names of Dipsas cenchoa (Reptilia: Serpentes). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 31 (4): 198-203
  • Smith, Hobart 1942. Mexican herpetological miscellany. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 92 (3153): 349-395 - get paper here
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1959. The provenance of reptiles and amphibians collected in Western Mexico by J. J. Major. American Museum Novitates (1949): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. 1959. Snakes of the genus Imantodes in western Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1961: 1-17 - get paper here
 
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