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Japalura tricarinata (BLYTH, 1853)

IUCN Red List - Japalura tricarinata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Three Keeled Mountain Lizard, Tricarinate forest agama
G: Dreikiel-Bergwaldagame
Chinese: 三棱攀蜥 
SynonymCalotes tricarinatus BLYTH 1853: 650
Tiaris elliotti GÜNTHER 1860: 151 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Oriotiaris elliotti — GÜNTHER 1864
Oreotiaris tricarinata — ANDERSON 1871: 167
Acanthosaura tricarinata — BOULENGER 1885: 306
Acanthosaura tricarinata — ANNANDALE 1907: 153
Japalura tricarinata — SMITH 1935: 169
Japalura tricarinatus — DAS 1996: 44
Japalura tricarinata — MACEY et al. 2000
Oriotiaris tricarinata — KÄSTLE et al. 2013: 427
Japalura tricarinata — WANG et al. 2018 
DistributionN India (Sikkim, Derjeeling, West Bengal), E Nepal, China (Tibet)

Type locality: near Darjeeling  
TypesHolotype: ZSI 5300 "near Darjiling" (= Darjeeling, 27º 02'N; 88º 16'E, West Bengal State, eastern India).
Syntypes: NHMUK 1946.8.28.9, female, Sikkim, Himalaya, coll. v. Schlagintweit; NHMUK 1946.8.13.98–99 (original number NMHUK 1853.8.12.1–2), one male and one female pres. J Hooker [ellioti] 
DiagnosisJapalura tricarinata can be diagnosed from congeners by a combination of the following morphological characteristics: (1) body size small, SVL 42.47–53.43 mm in males, 42.51–61.32 mm in females; (2) tail long, TAL 247.75–298.33% SVL in males, 203.43%–230.49% in fe- males; (3) MD 36–46; (4) T4S 22–28; (5) V-shaped ridges present along body midline from neck to pelvis, formed by enlarged, keeled scales (more distinct in females); (6) dorsolateral ridge present on each side of vertebral ridge, distinct, continuous from neck to pelvis; (7) numerous enlarged, modified scales present postrictal, with one at rear axis of jaw in conical shape, distinctively thick, protruding; (8) tympanum exposed; (9) transverse gular fold absent; (10) gular pouch feeble or absent; (11) ventral head scales smooth or feebly keeled in males; (12) vertebral ridge feebly developed in both sexes, not raised on skin fold or possessing protruding, serrated scales; (13) body coloration in life mostly uniform grass green in males (sometimes speckled with few dark brown spots), light Pratt’s rufous or Pratt’s rufous in females; (14) series of dark chevron patterns represent dorsally along midline in females, but indistinct in males; (15) gular spots absent in both sexes; and (16) distinct dorsolateral stripes absent in males. [from Wang et al. 2018] 
CommentSynonymy mostly after WERMUTH 1967. Schleich and Kästle (1998) revalidated the genus Oriotiaris (erroneously called Oriocalotes in Ananjeva et al. 2017) Günther, 1864 and combined all species with a visible tympanum e.g. tricarinata in this genus, while placing species with a hidden tympanum, e.g. variegata into the genus Japalura (fide Ananjeva et al. 2017). However, Mahony 2009 synonymised Oriotiaris with Japalura.

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Type species: Tiaris elliotti GÜNTHER 1860 is the type species of the genus Oriotiaris GÜNTHER 1864. 
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • Blyth,E. 1854. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little-known. Part I. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 22 [1853]: 639-655 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A., Annandale, N., Wall, F. & Regan, C.T. 1907. Reports on a collection of batrachia, reptiles and fish from Nepal and the western Himalayas. Lacertilia. Records of the Indian Museum 1:149—155 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • DENZER, WOLFGANG; ULRICH MANTHEY, PATRICK D CAMPBELL 2019. Catalogue of type specimens of the agamid lizard genus Japalura s. l. (Squamata: Agamidae: Draconinae). Zootaxa 4612 (1): 109-125 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 1975. Agame Japalura tricarinata aus dem zentralen Nepal-Himalaya. Das Aquarium 1975 (77): 502-505
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1860. Contributions to a knowledge of the reptiles of the Himalaya mountains. - I. Descriptions of the new species. II. List of Himalayan reptiles, with remarks on their horizontal distribution. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1860: 148-175 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Manthey U 2008. Agamid lizards of Southern Asia, Draconinae 1. Terralog 7, 160 pp.
  • Manthey U 2010. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia. Draconinae 2 -Leiolepidinae. Terralog 7b, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 168 pp.
  • Nanhoe, L.M.R., & Ouboter, P.E. 1987. The distribution of reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal). Zoologische Verhandelingen (240): 1-105 - get paper here
  • Ota,H. 1989. A new species of Japalura (Agamidae: Lacertilia:Reptilia) from Taiwan. Copeia 1989 (3): 569-576 - get paper here
  • Pokhrel, Ganesh Kumar and Sudeep Thakuri 2016. Herpetofaunal diversity in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal. Our Nature 14 (1): 99-106 - get paper here
  • Shah, K. B. 1995. Enumeration of Habitat, Geographical and Altitudinal Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal.
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Swan, L.W., & Leviton, A.E. 1962. The herpetology of Nepal: a history, check list, and zoogeographical analysis of the herpetofauna. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 32 (6) (4.s.): 103-147. - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Waltner, R.C. 1975. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Himalayas. Cheetal (Dehra Dun, India) 16(1): 17-25; 16(2): 28-36; 16(3): 14-19; 16(4): 12-17.
  • Wang, Kai; Jing Che, Simin Lin, V Deepak, Datta-Roy Aniruddha, Ke Jiang, Jieqiong Jin, Hongman Chen, Cameron D Siler; 2018. Multilocus phylogeny and revised classification for mountain dragons of the genus Japalura s.l. (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) from Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, , zly034, - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Ke Jiang, V. Deepak, Das Abhijit, Mian Hou, Jing Che, and Cameron D. Siler 2018. On the Occurrences of Japalura kumaonensis and Japalura tricarinata (Reptilia: Sauria: Draconinae) in China. Herpetologica 74 (2): 181-190. - get paper here
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