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Kinosternon flavescens (AGASSIZ, 1857)

IUCN Red List - Kinosternon flavescens - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesYellow Mud Turtle 
SynonymPlatythyra flavescens AGASSIZ 1857: 430
Cinosternon flavescens AGASSIZ 1857:260
Cinosternum flavescens COPE 1875
Kinosternon flavescens flavescens HARTWEG 1938
Kinosternon flavescens spooneri SMITH 1951: 195
Kinosternon flavescens flavescens — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 6
Kinosternon flavescens spooneri — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 6
Kinosternon flavescens — STEBBINS 1985: 98
Kinosternon flavescens spooneri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 49
Kinosternon flavescens flavescens — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 49
Kinosternon flavescens — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 48
Kinosternon flavescens — LINER 1994
Kinosternon flavescens — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon flavescens — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon flavescens — TTWG 2014: 347 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, Kansas, Arkansas ?, W Nebraska, E Colorado, E New Mexico, SE Iowa, NW Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, SE Oklahoma, E Texas); Mexico (N Chihuahua, NE Coahuila, W Nuevo Leon, SW Tamaulipas, NW Veracruz)

Type locality: Waco, Texas (restricted by K.P. SCHMIDT 1953) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
Reproductionoviparous. This species shows temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). 
TypesTypes: USNM 50, 131823 und 7892, MCZ 1918 und 1919
Lectotype: USNM 50 (designated by IVERSON 1978; pers comm. antvet 30 Jul 2012). 
CommentSynonymy: Kinosternon flavescens spooneri has been synonymized with flavescens flavescens by BERRY & BERRY 1984. SERB et al. (2001) suggested to elevate K. f. arizonense and K. f. durangoense to full “phylogenetic” species status. Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri HARTWEG 1938 has been synonymized with K. arizonense.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
  • Agassiz, Louis 1857. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. vol. 1. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, lii + 452 pp.
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bergman, Enoch; Manzer, Jerry D.; Childers, Theresa; Mackessy, Stephen P. 1998. Geographic distribution. Kinosternon flavescens flavescens. Herpetological Review 29 (4): 247 - get paper here
  • Berry J F; Berry C M 1984. A re-analysis of geographic variation and systematics in the yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens (Agassiz). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 53 (7): 185-206
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Christiansen, J.L., B.J. Gallaway, and J.W. Bickham 1990. Population estimates and geographic distribution of the yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens) in Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 97:105-108
  • Christiansen, James L.; Neil P. Bernstein, Christopher A. Phillips, Jeffrey T. Briggler, and Don Kangas 2012. Declining Populations of Yellow Mud Turtles (Kinosternon flavescens) in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri. Southwestern Naturalist 57 (3): 304-313 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger; Berry, James F. 1978. Turtles of the family Kinosternidae in the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico: Identification and distribution. American Museum Novitates (2642): 1-18 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Davis DR, LaDuc TJ 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of C. E. Miller Ranch and the Sierra Vieja, Chihuahuan Desert, Texas, USA ZooKeys 735: 97-130 - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dodge, Christopher;Miller, Lowell S. 1955. The yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens spooneri Smith, in Iowa. Natural History Miscellanea (144): 1-3
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Forrester, Ashley J. and Keith Geluso. 2016. Geographic Distribution: Kinosternon flavescens (Yellow Mud Turtle). Herpetological Review 47 (2): 253
  • Gilmore, C.W. 1922. A new fossil turtle, Kinosternon arizonense, from Arizona. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 63, Art. 5: 1-8 - get paper here
  • Hartweg, Norman 1938. Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri, a new turtle from northern Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (371): 1-5
  • Hedrick, Ashley and Iverson, John B. 2017. Kinosternon flavescens (Yellow Mud Turtle) Female growth and longevity Herpetological Review 48 (1): 178-179 - get paper here
  • Hibbitts, Troy D. and Terry L. Hibbitts 2016. Texas Turtles & Crocodilians: a Field Guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. xvi + 276 pp., 117 photos, 36 maps. ISBN 978-1477307779.
  • Hogan, Kevin D.;Smith, Donald D. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Kinosternon flavescens flavescens. Herpetological Review 28 (2): 94 - get paper here
  • Houseal,W.; Bickham,J.W. & Springer,M.D. 1982. Geographic variation in the Yellow Mud Turtle, Kinosternon flavescens. Copeia 1982 (1): 212-225 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J. B. 1979. A taxonomic reappraisal of the yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens (Testudines: Kinosternidae). Copeia 1979 (2): 212-225 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J. B. 1979. On the validity of Kinosternon arizonense Gilmore. Copeia 1979 (1): 175-177 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J. B. 1991. Phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of modern Kinosternine turtles. Herpetological Monographs 5: 1-27 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B., & Berry, J.F. 1979. The mud turtle genus Kinosternon in northeastern Mexico. Herpetologica 35 (4): 318-324. - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 1989. The Arizona mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens arizonense (Kinosternidae), in Arizona and Sonora. Southwestern Naturalist 34 (3): 356-368 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B.; Rebecca L. Prosser, and Evan N. Dalton 2009. ORIENTATION IN JUVENILES OF A SEMIAQUATIC TURTLE, KINOSTERNON FLAVESCENS. Herpetologica 65 (3): 237-245 - get paper here
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Kasper, Stephen. 2013. Kinosternon flavescens flavescens (yellow mud turtle) road-carrion feeding. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 305
  • Keefer, Steven D.;Loeffler, Charles W. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Kinosternon flavescens flavescens. Herpetological Review 29 (1): 50 - get paper here
  • Legler, J.M.& Vogt, R.C. 2013. The Turtles of Mexico: Land and Freshwater Forms. University of California Press, 416 pp.
  • Long, David R. 1993. Yellow mud turtles [Kinosternon flavescens spooneri]. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March/April): 22-26
  • McAllister, Chris T. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Kinosternon flavescens (yellow mud turtle). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 214-215
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2005. Chelonian Illustrations #21: Mud turtles of the United States and Morthern Mexico. Reptilia (GB) (41): 80-83 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2001. Schlammschildkröten: Kinosternon, Sternotherus, Claudius, Staurotypus. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 136 pp. - get paper here
  • Schwanz, Lisa; Gerardo A. Cordero, Eric L. Charnov andFredric J. Janzen 2016. SEX-SPECIFIC SURVIVAL TO MATURITY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SEX DETERMINATION. [turtles] Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12856 - get paper here
  • Seidel M E 1978. Kinosternon flavescens (Agassiz). Yellow mud turtle. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 216: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Serb,J.M.; Phillips,C.A. & Iverson,J.B. 2001. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Kinosternon flavescens based on complete mitochondrial control region sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 18 (1): 149-162 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Smith, Philip W. 1948. Noteworthy herpetological records from Illinois [Heterodon nasicus nasicus; Kinosternon flavescens flavescens]. Natural History Miscellanea (33): 1-4
  • Smith, Philip W. 1951. A new frog and a new turtle from the western Illinois sand prairies. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 9 (10): 189-199
  • Smith, Philip W.;Hensley, M. Max 1957. The mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri Hartweg, in the United States. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 70: 201-204 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stuart, James N. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Kinosternon flavescens flavescens. Herpetological Review 28 (1): 49 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Thornton, Okla W., Jr.;Smith, Jerry R. 1993. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from West-Central Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (1): 35-36 - get paper here
  • Tuma, Michael W. 2006. Range, habitat use, and seasonal activity of the Yellow Mud Turtle Kinosternon flavescens in Northwestern Illinois: Implications for site-specific conservations and management. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5 (1): 108-120
  • Williams, Kenneth L. 1961. Aberrant mudturtles, Kinosternon flavescens, from Coahuila, Mexico. Herpetologica 17 (1): 72 - get paper here
  • Wilson, D.S. et al. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from growth rings: a critical evaluation of the technique. Herpetologica 59 (2): 178-194 - get paper here
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