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Kinosternon leucostomum (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1851)

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesKinosternon leucostomum leucostomum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale COPE 1887 
Common NamesE: White-lipped Mud Turtle
G: Weissmaul-Klappschildkröte
S: Pochitoque 
SynonymCinosternon leucostomum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851
Swanka maculata GRAY 1869
Cinosternon leucostomum — BOCOURT 1876: 394
Cinosternum brevigulare GÜNTHER 1885: 17
Cinosternum leucostomum — GÜNTHER 1885: 17
Cinosternum cobanum GÜNTHER 1885: 18
Cinosternum leucostomum BOULENGER 1889
Kinosternon mopanum NEILL 1965
Kinosternon leucostomum — LINER 1994
Kinosternon leucostomum — KÖHLER 2000: 26
Cryptochelys leucostomum — IVERSON et al. 2013
Kinosternon leucostomum — SPINKS et al. 2014
Kinosternon leucostomum leucostomum — TTWG 2014: 349
Kinosternon leucostoma — GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017
Kinosternon leucostomum leucostomum — TTWG 2021

Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale (COPE 1887)
Cinosternum brevigulare COPE 1885
Cinosternum postinguinale COPE 1887 (nomen novum)
Cinosternum spurrelli BOULENGER 1913
Kinosternon postinguinale — SCHMIDT 1947
Kinosternon spurrelli — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1961
Kinosternon spurrelli — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 10
Kinosternon postinguinale — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 8
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — KÖHLER 2000: 26
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — SCHILDE 2003
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — RHODIN et al. 2010
Cryptochelys leucostomum postinguinale — IVERSON et al. 2013
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — TTWG 2014: 349
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale — TTWG 2021 
DistributionMexico ((Campeche, Quintana Roo, CS Veracruz, Oaxaca ?, Tabasco ?, Chiapas ?, Yucatan),
Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador ?, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (Antioquia, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Narino, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca), Ecuador, N Peru (Tumbes)

postinguinale: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, N Peru; Type locality: Sipurio (East coast of Costa Rica)

spurrelli: W Colombia; Type locality: Peña Lisa, W Colombia

Type locality: "N. Orlean; Mexique; Rio Sumasinta (Amer. centr.)"; restricted to "Rio Usumacinta, El Peten, Guatemala," by Schmidt (1941:488); in error further restricted to "Cosamaloapam, Veracruz," Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:26).  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 9087 (indicated as Lectotype in MNHN catalogue) or MNHN-RA 8311 designated as Lectotype by Stuart (1963: 49); Paralectotypes: MNHN-RA 2114, MNHN-RA 9088.
Syntypes: USNM 19797, Old Harbor, Costa Rica, W. M. Gabb. 45582, female, USNM 51165, male, Sipurio, Costa Rica, W. M. Gabb. [postinguinale]
Holotype: MCZ 71635 [mopanum]
Syntype: USNM 51165 [Cinosternum brevigulare] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Cryptochelys): Diagnosis: Kinosternid (sensu stricto) turtles lacking an entopl-astron (present in Baltemys and Xenochelys), with reduced carination (basically unicarinate; usually tricarinate in Baltemys, Xenochelys, Sternotherus, and Kinosternon, though nearly acarinatein some in the latter genus), a reduced neural series (typically fivebones, all posteriorly symmetric; six in C. creaseri) not in contact with the nuchal bone (usually six with neural contact in other inosternids; Iverson, 1988b), the presence of clasping organs on the posterior crus and thigh (except absent in C. acuta and C. crea-seri; also present in Sternotherus, but absent in many Kinosternon),the anterior end of the anterior musk duct groove reaching only tothe anterior half of the third peripheral (unknown for dunni; reaching to the second peripheral in Sternotherus and most Kinosternon, and to the first peripheral in Baltemys and Xenochelys), agular scute of intermediate width (much narrower in Sternotherusand usually broader in Kinosternon; see Appendix in Iverson, 1991),and distinctive mitochondrial DNA. 
CommentSynonymy: partly after Rhodin et al. 2010.

Distribution: Not listed for El Salvador by KÖHLER (2000).

Type species: Cinosternon leucostomum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851 is the type species of the genus Cryptochelys IVERSON et al. 2013. Note, however, that SPINKS et al. 2014 rejected the genus Cryptochelys.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
EtymologyThe name leucostomum is derived from the Greek words leukos (white) and stoma (mouth), and alludes to the pale-colored jaw sheaths in many specimens of this species (especially juveniles). 
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