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Kinosternon scorpioides (LINNAEUS, 1766)

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesKinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (LINNAEUS 1766)
Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare (BAUR 1925)
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851 
Common NamesScorpion Mud Turtle
abaxillare: Central Chiapas Mud Turtle
cruentatum: Red-cheeked Mud Turtle 
SynonymTestudo scorpioides LINNAEUS 1766
Testudo tricarinata SCHOEPFF 1792
Testudo retzii DAUDIN 1802
Kinosternon shawianum BELL 1825
Kinosternon scorpioides — GRAY 1831
Cinosternon Scorpioides — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 363
Cinosternon shawianum — BOCOURT 1876: 387
Cinosternon scorpioides — BOCOURT 1876: 396
Cinosternum scorpioides — BOULENGER 1889
Kinosternon scorpioides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 171
Kinosternon scorpioides — KÖHLER 2000: 26
Kinosternon scorpioides — TTWG 2014: 349

Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (LINNAEUS 1766)
Testudo retzii DAUDIN 1801:174
Kinosternon shavianum BELL 1825:302
Monoclida retziana RAFINESQUE 1832:64 (nomen novum)
Kinosternon longicaudatum SPIX 1824
Kinosternon brevicaudatum SPIX 1824
Cinosternum scorpioides scorpioides — SIEBENROCK 1907
Cinosternum scorpioides integrum forma brasiliana SIEBENROCK 1907
Kinosternon scorpioides seriei FREIBERG 1936
Kinosternon scorpioides seriei FREIBERG 1936
Kinosternon scorpioides pachyurum MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1936
Kinosternon panamensis SCHMIDT 1946
Kinosternon scorpioides panamense — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Kinosternon scorpioides carajasensis CUNHA 1970
Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Kinosternon scorpioides pachyurum MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1936
Kinosternon scorpioides pachyurum MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1936
Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides — RHODIN et al. 2010

Kinosternon abaxillare BAUR 1925 (in STEJNEGER)
Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare - ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon abaxillare — IVERSON et al. 2013
Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare — TTWG 2014

Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Cinosternon albogulare DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Cinosternon albogulare — GRAY 1873: 113
Cinosternon albogulare — BOCOURT 1876: 399
Cinosternum albogulare — GÜNTHER 1885: 14
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare — DUNN & SAXE 1950
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 171
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare — TTWG 2014: 349
Kinosternon albogulare — MCCRANIE 2015

Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851
Cinosternon scorpioides cruentatum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851
Kinosternum mexicanum LE CONTE 1854
Kinosternum triliratum LE CONTE 1860
Cinosternon cruentatum — BOCOURT 1876: 398
Cinosternum cruentatum — GÜNTHER 1885: 13
Cinosternum triliratum — GÜNTHER 1885: 14
Cinosternum cruentatum BOULENGER 1889
Kinosternon cruentatum cruentatum — WETTSTEIN 1934
Kinosternon cruentatum consors STEJNEGER 1941
Kinosternon cruentatum consors STEJNEGER 1941
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — MERTENS 1952: 35
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — KÖHLER 2000: 26
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — ACUÑA & MERCHÁN 2003
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum — TTWG 2014: 349 
DistributionMexico (Campeche, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Yucatan, Chiapas, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Morelos), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Guainia, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, San Andres, Norte de Santander, Sucre, Vaupes, Vichada), Ecuador, Venezuela (Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Bolivar, Cojedes, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia), French Guiana, Guyana, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Sergipe, Tocantins, Roraima), Argentina (Formosa, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman), Paraguay, Bolivia, N Peru (Amazonas, Huanuco, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Ucayali), Suriname, Trinidad

Type locality: Surinam.

scorpioides: Panama, Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Guainia, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, San Andres, Norte de Santander, Sucre, Vaupes, Vichada), Ecuador, Venezuela (Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Bolivar, Cojedes, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia), French Guiana, Guyana, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Sergipe, Tocantins, Roraima), Argentina (Formosa, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman, Chaco), Paraguay, Bolivia, N Peru (Amazonas, Huanuco, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Ucayali), Suriname, Trinidad

abaxillare: Mexico (Tabasco, Chiapas)

albogulare: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Isla Cañas, Colombia (Isla San Andrés).

cruentatum: Honduras, NE Nicaragua north to Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Morelos), Guatemala; Type locality: San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (designated by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: apparently lost (Smith and Smith 1979 [1980], Berry & Iverson 2001).
Holotype: USNM 7518, adult male [abaxillare]
Syntypes: MNHN 1760, MNHN 4349; the holotype is lost, but Berry & Iverson 2001 have examined USNM 7519-29, the paratypes [albogulare]
Holotype: MNHN 1759, a subadult female [cruentatum]
Holotype: ANSP 90 [mexicanum] 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies: Cabrera & Colantonia (1997) proposed to synonymize both K. s. seriei and K. s. carajasensis with Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides. K. s. cruentatum is considered as a synonym of Kinosternon scorpioides by Legler 1965 and Iverson 1976. Kinosternon scorpioides integrum (LE CONTE 1854) has been elevated to full species status.

Distribution: Not listed for Honduras by WILSON & MCCRANIE (2002).

Type species: Kinosternon longicaudatum SPIX 1824 and Kinosternon brevicaudatum SPIX 1824 (= Kinosternon scorpioides) are the types of the genus Kinosternon SPIX 1824 (fide STEJNEGER 1902: 237). 
EtymologyThe name Kinosternon was derived from the Greek words kinetos, meaning "movable" and sternon, meaning "chest," in reference to the plastral hinges. The specific name scorpioides is derived from the Latin word "scorpio," probably in reference to the horny spine on the tip of the tail. Together with the Latin ending "oides," the full meaning translates to "similar to a scorpion" (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013). 
References
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