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Kinosternon subrubrum BONNATERRE, 1789

IUCN Red List - Kinosternon subrubrum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesKinosternon subrubrum subrubrum (BONNATERRE 1789)
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis GRAY 1856 
Common NamesEastern Mud Turtle, Common Mud Turtle
subrubrum: Eastern Mud Turtle
hippocrepis: Mississippi Mud Turtle
steindachneri: Florida Mud Turtle 
SynonymKinosternon subrubrum (LACÉPÈDE 1788: 132, 618)
Testudo subrubra LACÉPÈDE 1788
Testudo subrubra — BONNATERRE 1789: 27
Kinosternon pensylvanicum — GRAY 1856: 265
Cinosternum pensylvanicum — BOCOURT 1876: 392
Cinosternum pensylvanicum BOULENGER 1889
Kinosternon pensylvanicum — RHOADS 1885: 384
Kinosternon subrubrum — TTWG 2014

Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum (BONNATERRE 1789)
Testudo pensilvanica GMELIN 1789
Cistuda pensylvanica — SAY 1824: 206
Cinosternon Pensylvanicum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 367
Kinosternon oblongum GRAY 1844
Kinosternon doubledayii GRAY 1844
Kinosternon punctatum GRAY 1856: 265
Swanka fasciata GRAY 1870
Cinosternum pennsylvanicum — BRIMLEY 1910: 18
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1917
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 46
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum — TTWG 2014

Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis GRAY 1856
Kinosternon hippocrepis GRAY 1856: 265
Kinosternon louisianae BAUR 1893
Cinosternum louisianae — BRIMLEY 1910: 17
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1917
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — MCCOY 1975
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — CONANT & BERRY 1978
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 48
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis — TTWG 2014 
DistributionUSA (Connecticut, Long Island, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, E Texas, SE Oklahoma, Arkansas, SE Missouri, S Illinois, Tennessee, W Kentucky, Indiana).

subrubrum: (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, S Illinois, Tennessee, W Kentucky, Indiana); Type locality: Not stated: designated as "vicinity of Philadelphia" [Philadelphia Co., Pennsylvania,
USA] by Schmidt (1953:90).

hippocrepis: USA (Louisiana, C Texas, E Oklahoma, Colorado, Arkansas, SE Missouri, Mississippi, SE Illinois, W Tennessee, Texas, Florida panhandle, and areas in between); Type locality: "North America: New Orleans" [Orleans Parish,
Louisiana, USA] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: not given (Iverson 1977)
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.22.16-17 [hippocrepis] 
CommentSynonymy: after Schmidt 1953: 90.

Please note that SAVAGE (2003) suggested to reject Lacepède’s (1788) “Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares” as a non-binominal work (Case 3226; Bull. Zool. Nom. 60 (2)). This application has been successful. The ICZN (2005) has ruled that Lacepède’s (1788) work (and all subsequent editions of this work) are rejected as an unavailable, non-binominal work.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after sub- (Latin) = under, almost and rubrum (Latin) = red, a reference to the brown shell. 
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