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Kinyongia multituberculata (NIEDEN, 1913)

IUCN Red List - Kinyongia multituberculata - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: West Usambara two-horned chamaeleon
G: West-Usambara-Zweihornchamäleon 
SynonymChamaeleon fischeri multituberculatus NIEDEN 1913: 248
Chamaeleon fischeri werneri NIEDEN 1913: 248
Bradypodion fischeri multituberculatum — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 12
Kinyongia fischeri multituberculatum — TILBURY et al. 2006
Kinyongia multituberculata — MARIAUX et al. 2008
Kinyongia multituberculata — TILBURY 2010: 383
Kinyongia multituberculata — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 272 
DistributionTanzania (W/E Usambara Mts., up to 2300 m elevation)

Type locality: Phillipshof bei Wilhelmstal = Magamba, near Lushoto, W. Usambara Mts., Tanzania.  
TypesLectotype: ZMB 51344 male; Paralectotype: ZMB 23227 female (Mariaux et al. 2008: 381)
Syntypes: ZMB 19268-69, 19271-74, 51350, 66710, 16087 (13 specimens). ZMB 19266 lost in World War II, ZMB 19276 missing; NMW 23362 (formerly ZMB 19267) and MCZ 20195 (formerly ZMB 19270) fide Bauer, Böhme and Günther (2006: 275) [werneri] 
DiagnosisDifferential diagnosis: Differs from all two-horned species by its dorsal crest extending along the whole length of male’s back and up to the middle of female’s back and scalation on the body and legs with numerous coarse, convex tubercles; also differs from all species (except K. vosseleri) by the presence of a tail crest. 
Commentvan Hoof et al. (2006) give REICHENOW 1894 as author of B. f. multituberculatum. 
EtymologyNamed after L.: multi, prefix meaning many; tuberculum (diminutive of tuber, swelling or wartlike projection); -atus/a/um, adjectival suffix: tuberculous, denoting the numerous tubercles projecting from the anterior half of the dorsal crest (Charles Klaver, pers. comm., 11 Jan 2023). 
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Lantermann, Werner & Yvonne Lantermann 2017. Nachwuchs bei Zweihorn-Chamäleons (Kinyongia multituberculata) in den West-Usambara-Bergen. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (4): 56-59 - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N. 2016. Chamäleons. Immer wieder Neues. Reptilia 21 (119): 16-24
  • Mariaux, Jean; Lutzmann, N. & Stipala, Jan 2008. The two-horned chamaeleons of East Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 152, 367–391 - get paper here
  • Menegon M, Tolley KA, Jones T, Rovero F, Marshall AR, Tilbury CR 2009. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Herpetology 58 (2): 59-70 - get paper here
  • Nieden, F. 1913. Chamaeleon fischeri Rchw. und seine Unterarten. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 1913: 231-249.
  • Rovero, F., Menegon, M., Fjeldså, J., Collett, L., Doggart, N., Leonard, C., Norton, G., Owen, N., Perkin, A., Spitale, D., Ahrends, A., Burgess, N. D. 2014. Targeted vertebrate surveys enhance the faunal importance and improve explanatory models within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania. Diversity and Distributions. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12246 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Tilbury C.R., Tolley K.A. & Branch W.R. 2006. A review of the systematics of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with the description of two new genera. Zootaxa 1363, 23–38 (correction in Zootaxa 1426: 68) - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • WIERRES, W. 2003. Beobachtungen von Phytophagie bei Bradypodion fischeri multituberculatum. CHAMAELEO 13(1): 5. - get paper here
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