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Kinyongia tolleyae HUGHES, KUSAMBA, BEHANGANA & GREENBAUM, 2017

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTolley’s forest chameleon 
SynonymKinyongia tolleyae HUGHES, KUSAMBA, BEHANGANA & GREENBAUM 2017
Chamaeleo adolfifriderici – VONESH 2001: table 3
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TILBURY et al. 2006: fig. 2
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – MENEGON et al. 2009: fig. 1
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – BRANCH & TOLLEY 2010: fig. 4
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TILBURY 2010: fig. 376
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TOWNSEND et al. 2011: fig. 1
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TOLLEY et al. 2011: figs. 2, 3, 4
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TOLLEY et al. 2013: figs. 1, 2
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – GREENBAUM et al. 2012: fig. 2
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – TILBURY & TOLLEY 2015: fig. 4
Kinyongia adolfifriderici – MENEGON et al. 2015: fig. 3 
DistributionUganda

Type locality: UGANDA, Western Region, Kigezi sub-region, Kabale District, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, near Ruhija village, 01°2′54.096′′S 29°46′36.624′′E, 2284 m elevation  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: UTEP 21490 (field no. ELI 2755), adult female, 26 May 2014, collected at night from natural vegetation along a roadside near Institute for Tropical Forest Conservation (ITFC) by C. Kusamba, M.M. Aristote and W.M. Muninga (Fig. 8E).
Paratopotypes: Same collection details as holotype, two adult females, UTEP 21486 (field no. ELI 2754) and UTEP 21487 [field no. ELI 2788 (28 May 2014)], col- lected at night from forest edges c. 3 m above ground along a road to ITFC, and one adult male, UTEP 21488 (field no. ELI 2756), collected at night with aid of stick from c. 5 m above ground in sleeping perch of tree behind ITFC (main office) by D.F. Hughes, K.A. Tolley, S. Davies and A.A. Turner.
Paratype: One adult male, UTEP 21489 (field no. ELI 2827), UGANDA, Western Region, Rwenzururu sub-region, Kasese District, near Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Ruboni village, 00°20′58.992′′N 30°1′47.028′′E, 1655 m elevation, 31 May 2014, col- lected at dusk from c. 3 m above ground in sleep- ing perch of vegetation (secondary forest) in front of the Ruboni Community Hotel by D.F. Hughes, E. Greenbaum and M. Behangana. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Kinyongia tolleyae sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other Kinyongia species by the fol- lowing combination of traits: (1) lack of rostro-nasal ornamentation in both sexes; (2) moderate body size (mean SVL = 56.6 mm); (3) anterior dorsal keel with 5–10 conical tubercles; (4) casque slightly elevated above the nape; (5) two smooth, expanded areas pre- sent on the casque that appear bilobed when viewed from above; (6) absence of both a gular and ventral crest; (7) 13–17 upper and 14–16 lower labials; (8) tail length longer than SVL in both sexes; (9) parietal crest with several slightly raised tubercles that fork towards the snout; (10) background coloration of the body in adult females is generally light green to yellow-green; background coloration of the body in adult males is generally light brown with anteriorly positioned green patches and peach speckling near the head; (11) large dark brown patches with white centres are present on the lateral flanks of adult females and these lateral patches are typically oriented with a larger patch positioned anteriorly and sometimes a second smaller patch positioned posteriorly from mid-body; (12) areas of darker brown pigment cover the cloacal region and extend distally onto hidden parts of the hind limbs and tail in adult females; (13) interstitial skin between the tubercles on the body is generally white and sometimes green for both sexes; (14) a brown stripe passes through the middle of the eye and extends from the canthal ridge to the temporal crest, and the eye skin above and below the stripe is powder blue/teal, gradually dissipating dorsally and ventrally; (15) the top of the head is somewhat darker green than elsewhere; (16) gular region and ventral portions of the body are distinctly off-white.

Differential diagnosis: A medium-sized forest chameleon that is distinguished from most other conge- ners by the absence of a rostral process in both sexes (K. asheorum, K. boehmei, K. carpenteri, K. fischeri, K. magomberae, K. matschiei, K. msuyae, K. multitu- berculata, K. oxyrhina, K. tavetana, K. tenuis, K. uluguruensis, K. uthmoelleri, K. vanheygeni, K. vosseleri and K. xenorhina). The new species can be distinguished from K. adolfifriderici by its larger snout length and more upper (13–17 vs. 10–14) and lower (14–16 vs. 12–15) labials. The new species can be distinguished from K. rugegensis sp. nov. by the presence of two dis- tinctly expanded and smooth portions of the upper casque (bilobed appearance), slightly smaller head width, fewer upper labials (13–17 vs. 16–18), and smaller fleshy papillae medial to rotulae on hemipenis. The new species can be distinguished from K. itombwensis sp. nov. by its larger snout length, slightly larger forelimbs and casque–eye distance and generally more conical tubercles on the dorsal crest (5–10 vs. 6–7). The new species can be distinguished from K. mulyai and K. excubitor by the presence of a dorsal crest with 5–10 conical tubercles and marked mitochondrial sequence divergence. The new species can be distinguished from K. gyrolepis by a smaller mean body size (56.6 mm vs. 67.3 mm) and current distribution in moist Afromontane rainforest. 
CommentSynonymy: Most cited papers in the synonymy refer to phylogenetic analyses.

Illustrations: Drewes & Vindum, 1998: fig. 3, Tilbury, 2010: fig. 376. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is named in honour of Krystal A. Tolley for her substantial contributions to chameleon biology, with the Latin suffix –ae to denote feminine genitive singular. To date, Krystal has participated in the description of 12 new chameleon species, published copious primary research articles on chame- leons covering a remarkable breadth of subjects and coauthored (or edited) two important books on chame- leons (Tolley & Burger, 2007; Tolley & Herrel, 2013). 
References
  • Branch W.R. & Tolley, K.A. 2010. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Nadzikambia) from Mount Mabu, central Mozambique. African Journal of Herpetology 59 (2): 157-172 - get paper here
  • Greenbaum, Eli; Krystal A. Tolley, Abdulmeneem Joma, and Chifundera Kusamba 2012. A New Species of Chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Northern Albertine Rift, Central Africa. Herpetologica 68 (1): 60-75. - get paper here
  • Hughes, Daniel F.; Chifundera Kusamba, Mathias Behangana, Eli Greenbaum 2017. Integrative taxonomy of the Central African forest chameleon, Kinyongia adolfifriderici (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), reveals underestimated species diversity in the Albertine Rift. Zool J Linnean Soc. 181 (2): 400–438 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2017. Kinyongia – unterschätzte Chamäleonvielfalt in Ostafrika Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (5): 8-9 - get paper here
  • Menegon M, Tolley KA, Jones T, Rovero F, Marshall AR, Tilbury CR 2009. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Herpetology 58 (2): 59-70 - get paper here
  • Menegon, Michele; Simon P. Loader, Tim R.B. Davenport, Kim M. Howell, Colin R. Tilbury, Sophy Machaga, Krystal A. Tolley 2015. A new species of Chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) highlights the biological affinities between the Southern Highlands and Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Acta Herpetologica 10 (2): 111-120 - get paper here
  • Tilbury C.R., Tolley K.A. & Branch W.R. 2006. A review of the systematics of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with the description of two new genera. Zootaxa 1363, 23–38 (correction in Zootaxa 1426: 68) - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • TILBURY, COLIN R. & KRYSTAL A. TOLLEY 2015. Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: Two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Zootaxa 3905 (3): 345–364 - get paper here
  • Tolley KA, Tilbury CR, Measey GJ, Menegon M, Branch WR, Matthee CA. 2011. Ancient forest fragmentation or recent radiation? Testing refugial speciation models in cha- meleons within an African biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1748–1760
  • Tolley KA, Townsend TM, Vences M. 2013. Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification. Proc R Soc B 280: 20130184 - get paper here
  • Townsend, Ted M.; Daniel G. Mulcahy, Brice P. Noonan, Jack W. Sites Jr., Caitlin A. Kuczynski, John J. Wiens & Tod W. Reeder 2011. Phylogeny of iguanian lizards inferred from 29 nuclear loci, and a comparison of concatenated and species-tree approaches for an ancient, rapid radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution<br />61 (2): 363-380 - get paper here
  • Vonesh, J.R. 2001. Natural history and biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contemporary Herpetology.
 
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