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Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802

IUCN Red List - Lacerta bilineata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesLacerta bilineata bilineata DAUDIN, 1802
Lacerta bilineata chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ, 1810
Lacerta bilineata chlorosecunda TADDEI 1950
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi VASVARY 1926
Lacerta bilineata indet (ELBING 2001) 
Common NamesE: Western Green Lizard
G: Westliche Smaradgeidechse 
SynonymLacerta bilineata DAUDIN 1802: 152
Lacertus viridis GARSAULT 1764
Lacerta viridis bilineata — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta bilineata — AMANN et al. 1997
Lacerta bilineata — BISCHOFF 2005
Lacerta bilineata italica — NCBI TAXONOMY 2016

Lacerta bilineata chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810
Lacerta chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 7
Lacerta viridis chloronota — MERTENS 1932: 255
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — BÖHME et al. 2007
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — SAGONAS et al. 2014

Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi VASVARY, 1926
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi VASVARY 1926
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — CEVIK & KUMLUTAS 1999
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — PAWLOWSKI et al. 2004
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — BÖHME et al. 2007
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — WIRTH 2013
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — SAGONAS et al. 2014 
DistributionS Switzerland, N Spain, Andorra, France, Monaco, Italy, Croatia, San Marino,
W Germany (Rivers Rhine, Nahe, Mosel),
United Kingdom, England (Channel islands Guernsey, Jersey),
USA (Kansas, urban Topeka, introduced: HR 33: 225)

chloronota: Italy

chlorosecunda: Italy

fejervaryi: Elba (Italy) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
Types 
CommentThe forms bilineata, chloronota, and fejervaryi are listed as subspecies of Lacerta viridis by ENGELMANN et al. (1993). However, BÖHME et al. (2007) question the validity of L. b. chlorosecunda and fejervaryi. L. bilineata has been resurrected from synonymy with L. viridis by RYKENA 1991.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 340663 (italica) 
References
  • Amann, Toni;Rykena, Silke;Joger, Ulrich;Nettmann, Hans Konrad;Veith, Michael 1997. Zur artlichen Trennung von Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802 und L. viridis (Laurenti, 1768). Salamandra 33 (4): 255-268
  • Berroneau, M. et al. 2010. Guide des Amphibiens et Reptiles d’Aquitaine. Association Cistude Nature, 180 pp.
  • Bischoff, W. 2005. Die echten Eidechsen der Familie Lacertidae - eine Übersicht. Draco 5 (21): 4-27 - get paper here
  • BOGAERTS, S. 2000. Beobachtungen einer Paarung zwischen zwei Weibchen von Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802. Die Eidechse 11 (2): 63-64 - get paper here
  • Böhme, M.U.; Fritz, U.; Kotenko, T.; Dzukic, G.; Ljubisavljevic, K.; Tzankov, N. & Berendonk, T.U. 2007. Phylogeography and cryptic variation within the Lacerta viridis complex (Lacertidae, Reptilia). Zoologica Scripta 36 (2): 119–131
  • Bruner E. & Costantini D. 2009. Head morphology and degree of variation in Lacerta bilineata, Podarcis muralis, and Podarcis sicula. Int. J. Morphol. 27: 667-676 - get paper here
  • Bruner, Emiliano; Costantini, David; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Gaicomo 2005. Morphological variation and sexual dimorphism of the cephalic scales in Lacerta bilineata. Acta Zoologica 86: 245-254.
  • Canova,Luca & Manuela Marchesi 2007. Amphibian and reptile communities in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI): relations between SCI area, heterogeneity and richness. Acta Herpetologica 2 (2): 87-96
  • ÇEVIK, Ethem & Yusuf KUMLUTAS 1999. Lacerta viridis (LACERTIDAE) Populasyonlarinin Türkiye’deki Taksonomik Durumu. Tr. J. of Zoology 23 Ek Sayi 1: 37-46
  • Costantini D., Lapresa Alonso M., Moazen M. & Bruner E. 2010. The relationship between cephalic scales and bones in lizards: a preliminary microtomographic survey on three lacertid species. Anatomical Record 293: 183-194 - get paper here
  • Daudin, F. M. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulièredes reptiles, ouvrage faisant suite, a l'histoiure naturelle, générale et particulière composée par LECLERC DE BUFFON, et redigée par C. S. SONNINI, vol. 3. F. Dufart, Paris.
  • DIECKMANN, M. 2001. Vermehrung von Lacerta bilineata bilineata im Freilandterrarium. Die Eidechse 12 (3): 80-83 - get paper here
  • Dubois, A. & Bour, R. 2010. The nomenclatural status of the nomina of amphibians and reptiles created by Garsault (1764), with a parsimonious solution to an old nomenclatural problem regarding the genus Bufo (Amphibia, Anura), comments on the taxonomy of this genus, and comment Zootaxa 2447: 1–52 - get paper here
  • ELBING, K. 2001. Die Smaragdeidechsen - zwei ungleiche Schwestern. Z. Feldherpetol. (Beiheft) 3 (Laurenti-Verlag, Bochum). - get paper here
  • ELBING, K. 2001. Paare, Paschas, Partisanen - Variabilität von Sozialverhalten und Fortpflanzungssystem in heimischen Smaragdeidechsenpopulationen. Die Eidechse 12 (2): 33-41 - get paper here
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • FUNKE, O. 1996. Ungewöhnliches Verhalten von Lacerta bilineata und Podarcis muralis. Die Eidechse 7 (18): 30 - get paper here
  • Grano, M. & Grano, P. 2006. Surrounded by water - reptiles of the Tuscan archipelago. Reptilia (GB) (47): 64-69 - get paper here
  • Gubanyi,James 2000. A breeding colony of western Green Lacertas (Lacerta bilineata) confirmed in southwestern Topeka (Kansas). Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 103 (3-4): 191-192 - get paper here
  • Henf, M. & Alfermann, D. 2004. Neunachweis der Smaragdeidechse im hessischen Lahntal. Salamandra 40 (3/4): 235-238 - get paper here
  • Joger, U.; Fritz, U.; Guicking, D.; Kalyabina-Hauf, S.; Nagy, Z.T. & Wink, M. 2007. Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns. Zoologischer Anzeiger 246: 293–313 - get paper here
  • Kolora, Sree Rohit; Rui Faria , Anne Weigert , Stefan Schaffer , Annegret Grimm , Klaus Henle , Abdullah H. Sahyoun , Peter F. Stadler , Katja Nowick , Christoph Bleidorn , Martin Schlegel 2015. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lacerta bilineata and comparison with its closely related congener L. Viridis Mitochondrial DNA, DOI:10.3109/19401736.2015.1111349 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • Lantermann, W. & Lantermann, Y. 2007. Westliche Smaragdeidechsen (Lacerta bilineata) an der Atlantikküste in der Bretagne. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (64): 40-42 - get paper here
  • LANTERMANN, W. & Y. LANTERMANN 2011. Ein Besuch bei den Smaragdeidechsen (Lacerta bilineata) im Oberen Mittelrheintal Die Eidechse 22 (2): 39-44.
  • Leptien, R. 2016. Die Smaragdeidechse. Reptilia 21 (120): 60-63
  • MAYER, W. & M. PODNAR 2002. Die Lacertiden des kroatischen Küstengebietes Teil I: Istrien und die Kvarner Bucht. Die Eidechse 13 (1): 8-13 - get paper here
  • Meek, Roger 2014. Temporal distributions, habitat associations and behaviour of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) on roads in a fragmented landscape in Western France. Acta Herpetologica 9 (2): 179-186
  • Mertens, R. 1932. Zur Verbreitung und Systematik einiger Lacerta — Formen der Apenninischen Haibinsel und der Tyrrhenischen Inselwelt. Senckenbergiana 14: 235-259
  • Meyer, S. 2005. Der Smaragdeidechsenwald von Caorle. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (52): 41-49 - get paper here
  • Nettmann, H. K. 1995. Zur Geschichte einer vermeintlichen Neuentdeckung. Elaphe 3 (4): 63-66
  • PEEK, R. 2011. Über die Zusammenhänge zwischen Nahrung und Körperfärbung bei der Westlichen Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta bilineata) und einigen anderen Lacertiden Die Eidechse 22 (2): 45-52.
  • Pottier G., Paumier J.-M., Tessier M., Barascud Y., Talhoët S., Liozon R., D’Andurain P., Vacher J.-P., Barthe L., Heaulmé V., Esslinger M., Arthur C.-P., Calvet A., Maurel C. & Redon H. 2008. Atlas de répartition des reptiles et amphibiens de Midi-Pyrénées. Les atlas naturalistes de Midi-Pyrénées. Nature Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse, 126 pp.
  • Rafinesque Schmaltz, C. S. 1810. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e plante della Sicilia. Sanfilippo, Palermo, 105 pp. - get paper here
  • Rohdich, W. 2005. Die Grünen vom Kaiserstuhl. Draco 5 (21): 68-71 - get paper here
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Jasna Vukić, Marie Altmanová, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Jiří Moravec and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2016. Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards. Molecular Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/mec.13635 - get paper here
  • Rugiero, Lorenzo; Luiselli, Luca 2007. Null model analysis of lizard communities in five urban parks of Rome. Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (4): 547-553 - get paper here
  • Rykena, S. 1991. Kreuzungsexperimente zur Prüfung der Artgrenzen im Genus Lacerta sensu stricto. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 67, 55–68
  • Schlüter, U. 2011. Die Lacertiden Andorras. Die Eidechse 22 (3): 83-92
  • SOUND, P. 1999. Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802 predates on juvenile Coronella austriaca LAURENTI, 1768. Herpetozoa 12 (1-2): 85-86 - get paper here
  • Taddei, A. 1950. [Description of Lacerta bilineata chlorosecunda.] - In: Le Lacerta (Lacerta) in Italia. Pontificia Academia Scientarum Commentationes, Rom. 14 (5): 197-219
  • Wirth, Michael 2013. Das Geheimnis der Feuerschneisen. Terraria Elaphe 2013 (3): 36-43 - get paper here
  • Wirth, Michael 2013. Toskana. Ein herpetologischer Überblick. Terraria Elaphe 2013 (3): 41-24 - get paper here
 
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