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Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802

IUCN Red List - Lacerta bilineata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLacerta bilineata bilineata DAUDIN 1802
Lacerta bilineata chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810 
Common NamesE: Western Green Lizard
G: Westliche Smaradgeidechse
Croatian: zapadnomediteranski zelembać
Italian: ramarro occidentale 
SynonymLacer­tus viridis GARSAULT 1764 (pl. 669) (nomen oblitum)
Lacerta varia WYTTENBACH in COXE 1789 (nomen oblitum)
Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN 1802: 152 (nomen protectum)
Lacertus viridis GARSAULT 1764
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi VASVARY 1926
Lacerta viridis magnifica SOBOLEVSKY 1930
Lacerta bilineata chlorosecunda TADDEI 1950: 207
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — MÜLLER 1971
Lacerta viridis bilineata — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta bilineata — AMANN et al. 1997
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — CEVIK & KUMLUTAS 1999
Lacerta viridis fejervaryi — PAWLOWSKI et al. 2004
Lacerta bilineata — BISCHOFF 2005
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — BÖHME et al. 2007
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — WIRTH 2013
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi — SAGONAS et al. 2014
Lacerta bilineata italica — NCBI TAXONOMY 2016
Lacerta bilineata bilineata — MARZAHN et al. 2016

Lacerta bilineata chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810
Lacerta chloronota RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 7
Lacerta viridis chloronota — MERTENS 1932: 255
Lacerta viridis chloronota — TADDEI 1950: 205
Lacerta viridis chloronota — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — BÖHME et al. 2007
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — SAGONAS et al. 2014
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — MARZAHN et al. 2016
Lacerta bilineata chloronota — LANTERMANN & LANTERMANN 2020 
DistributionS Switzerland, N Spain, Andorra, France, Monaco, Italy, Croatia, San Marino,
W Germany (Rivers Rhine, Nahe, Mosel),
United Kingdom, England (Channel islands Guernsey, Jersey),
USA (Kansas, urban Topeka, introduced: HR 33: 225)

chloronota: Italy (Sicily: Catania); Type locality: “Sicilia"

chlorosecunda: Italy; Type locality: “Taranto, Soleto (Lecce) e Capo S. Maria di Leuca”

fejervaryi: Elba (Italy)  
TypesHolotype: unlocated; "la collection d'histoire naturelle d'Alexandre Brongniart … environs de Paris" (fide I. Doronin, pers. comm. Nov 2018), but not listed in Guibé 1954 for MNHN. 
CommentSynonymy: BÖHME et al. (2007) question the validity of L. b. chlorosecunda and fejervaryi. L. bilineata has been resurrected from synonymy with L. viridis by RYKENA 1991. Marzahn et al. 2016 synonymized chlorosecunda and fejervaryi with bilineata. Similarly, Marzhan et al. “could not answer whether L. bilineata and L. viridis represent distinct species without extensive gene flow” and they support the validity of two subspecies only, namely L. b. bilineata and L. b. chloronota.Lacerta viridis magnifica SOBOLEVSKY 1930 has been removed rom the synonymy of L. viridis and synonymized with L. bilineata by Kehlmaier et al 2019. Denzer et al. 2020 confirmed the earlier designation of Lacertus viridis as a nomen oblitum, first suggested by Dubois & Bour 2010, and designated Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN as a nomen protectum.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 340663 (italica) 
EtymologyApparently named after the two bright lines on the back of at least some specimens. 
  • Amann, Toni;Rykena, Silke;Joger, Ulrich;Nettmann, Hans Konrad;Veith, Michael 1997. Zur artlichen Trennung von Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802 und L. viridis (Laurenti, 1768). Salamandra 33 (4): 255-268 - get paper here
  • Andrea Villa, Massimo Delfino 2019. A comparative atlas of the skull osteology of European lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 187 (3): 829–928 - get paper here
  • Berroneau, M. et al. 2010. Guide des Amphibiens et Reptiles d’Aquitaine. Association Cistude Nature, 180 pp.
  • Bischoff, W. 2005. Die echten Eidechsen der Familie Lacertidae - eine Übersicht. Draco 5 (21): 4-27 - get paper here
  • BOGAERTS, S. 2000. Beobachtungen einer Paarung zwischen zwei Weibchen von Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802. Die Eidechse 11 (2): 63-64 - get paper here
  • Böhme, M.U.; Fritz, U.; Kotenko, T.; Dzukic, G.; Ljubisavljevic, K.; Tzankov, N. & Berendonk, T.U. 2007. Phylogeography and cryptic variation within the Lacerta viridis complex (Lacertidae, Reptilia). Zoologica Scripta 36 (2): 119–131 - get paper here
  • Börner, A. R. 2017. Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse zu den Smaragdeidechsen am Nordrand ihrer Verbreitung: Lacerta bilineata im oberen Mittelrheintal und im Rheingau. Saurologica (5): 63 pp. - get paper here
  • Bruner E. & Costantini D. 2009. Head morphology and degree of variation in Lacerta bilineata, Podarcis muralis, and Podarcis sicula. Int. J. Morphol. 27: 667-676 - get paper here
  • Bruner, Emiliano; Costantini, David; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Gaicomo 2005. Morphological variation and sexual dimorphism of the cephalic scales in Lacerta bilineata. Acta Zoologica 86: 245-254. - get paper here
  • Canova,Luca & Manuela Marchesi 2007. Amphibian and reptile communities in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI): relations between SCI area, heterogeneity and richness. Acta Herpetologica 2 (2): 87-96
  • ÇEVIK, Ethem & Yusuf KUMLUTAS 1999. Lacerta viridis (LACERTIDAE) Populasyonlarinin Türkiye’deki Taksonomik Durumu. Tr. J. of Zoology 23 Ek Sayi 1: 37-46
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  • Denzer, W., Cogger, H., & Böhme, W. 2020. Lacerta varia – and then there were four: multiple use of the same species name for various lizards (Squamata: Lacertidae, Teiidae, Varanidae). Salamandra 56(4): 355-361 - get paper here
  • DIECKMANN, M. 2001. Vermehrung von Lacerta bilineata bilineata im Freilandterrarium. Die Eidechse 12 (3): 80-83 - get paper here
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  • FRITZ, P. 2017. Buchbesprechung: Dieckmann, M. (2017): Smaragdeidechsen Lacerta bilineata und Lacerta viridis. Sauria 39 (4): 47 - get paper here
  • FUNKE, O. 1996. Ungewöhnliches Verhalten von Lacerta bilineata und Podarcis muralis. Die Eidechse 7 (18): 30 - get paper here
  • Grano, M. & Grano, P. 2006. Surrounded by water - reptiles of the Tuscan archipelago. Reptilia (GB) (47): 64-69 - get paper here
  • Gubanyi,James 2000. A breeding colony of western Green Lacertas (Lacerta bilineata) confirmed in southwestern Topeka (Kansas). Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 103 (3-4): 191-192 - get paper here
  • Henf, M. & Alfermann, D. 2004. Neunachweis der Smaragdeidechse im hessischen Lahntal. Salamandra 40 (3-4): 235-238 - get paper here
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  • Kehlmaier C, Zinenko O, Fritz U. 2019. The enigmatic Crimean green lizard (Lacerta viridis magnifica) is extinct but not valid: Mitogenomics of a 120‐year‐old museum specimen reveals historical introduction. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 58 (1): 303-307 [2020] - get paper here
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  • Lantermann, W. & Y. Lantermann 2011. Ein Besuch bei den Smaragdeidechsen (Lacerta bilineata) im Oberen Mittelrheintal. Die Eidechse 22 (2): 39-44. - get paper here
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  • Marzahn, E., Mayer, W., Joger, U., Ilgaz, Ç., Jablonski, D., Kindler, C., Kumlutaş, Y., Nistri, A., Schneeweiss, N., Vamberger, M., Žagar, A. and Fritz, U. 2016. Phylogeography of the Lacerta viridis complex: mitochondrial and nuclear markers provide taxonomic insights. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 54: 85–105, doi: 10.1111/jzs.12115 - get paper here
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  • Vacher, Jean-Pierre 2019. An unusual case of predation of the western green lizard Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802 (Reptilia: Lacertidae) on the slow worm Anguis fragilis Linnaeus, 1758 (Reptilia: Anguidae). Herpetology Notes 12: 1201-1202 - get paper here
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  • Wirth, Michael 2013. Das Geheimnis der Feuerschneisen. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (3): 36-43 - get paper here
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