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Lachesis stenophrys COPE, 1876

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCentral American bushmaster 
SynonymLachesis stenophrys COPE 1876: 152
Bothrops achrocordus GARCIA 1896: 22
Lachesis muta stenophrys - TAYLOR 1951: 184
Lachesis muta stenophrys — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 137
Lachesis muta stenophrys — WELCH 1994: 69
Lachesis stenophrys — ZAMUDIO & GREENE 1997
Lachesis stenophrys — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 313
Lachesis stenophrys — SAVAGE 2002 
DistributionNicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

Type locality: Sipúrio, Costa Rica. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 32479, according to Cochran 1961:187
Holotype: UIMNH 6262 (of Bothrops stenophrys SMITH 1959, fide SMITH 1964) 
CommentVenomous!

Bothrops achrocordus GARCIA 1896: 22 has been removed from the synonymy of Lachesis stenophrys and is now considered to be a valid species by several authors.

Diagnosis.—Distinguished from L. melanocephala by having head that is predominantely unpigmented dorsally. Furthermore, L. stenophrys has fewer ventral scales (197–211 in females; 215–234 in males) than L. muta.

Reproduction: oviparous 
References
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [1875] - get paper here
  • Fernandes, D.S.; Franco, F.L. & Fernandes, R. 2004. Systematic revision of the genus Lachesis DAUDIN 1803 (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetologica 60 (2): 245-260 - get paper here
  • Henderson, C.L. 2010. Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles of Costa Rica - A field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 198 pp.
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Langebartel, David A.;Williams, Kenneth L. 1964. Herpetological type-specimens in the University of Illinois Museum of Natural History Illinois Biological Monographs (32): 1-80
  • Taylor,E.H. 1951. A brief review ot the snakes of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (1): 3-188 - get paper here
  • Zamudio, KELLY R. & HARRY W. GREENE 1997. Phylogeography of the bushmaster (Lachesis muta: Viperidae): implications for neotropical biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 62 (3): 421-442 - get paper here
 
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