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Lachesis stenophrys COPE, 1875

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Central American bushmaster 
SynonymLachesis stenophrys COPE 1876: 152
Bothrops achrocordus GARCIA 1896: 22
Lachesis muta stenophrys — TAYLOR 1951: 184
Lachesis muta stenophrys — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 137
Lachesis muta stenophrys — WELCH 1994: 69
Lachesis stenophrys — ZAMUDIO & GREENE 1997
Lachesis stenophrys — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 313
Lachesis stenophrys — SAVAGE 2002
Lachesis stenophrys — WALLACH et al. 2014: 356 
DistributionNicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

Type locality: Sipúrio, Costa Rica.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 32479, according to Cochran 1961:187
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 6262 (of Bothrops stenophrys SMITH 1959, fide SMITH 1964) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Distinguished from L. melanocephala by having head that is predominantely unpigmented dorsally. Furthermore, L. stenophrys has fewer ventral scales (197–211 in females; 215–234 in males) than L. muta. 

Bothrops achrocordus GARCIA 1896: 22 has been removed from the synonymy of Lachesis stenophrys and is now considered to be a valid species by several authors. 
EtymologyThe specific name stenophrys comes from the Greek stenos (= narrow) and ophrys (= brow), a reference to the small supraocular scales (Campbell and Lamar 2004). 
  • Barrio-Amorós, Cesar L.; Greivin Corrales, Sylvia Rodríguez , Jaime Culebras, Quetzal Dwyer, Diego Alejandro Flores 2020. The Bushmasters (Lachesis spp.): Queens of the rainforest. An overview of the taxonomy, distribution, natural history, lore, and conservation of the largest vipers in the world. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (3): 358-381 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes said to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Corrales, Greivin; Meidinger, Robert; Rodríguez, Santos; Chacon, Danilo; Gomez, Aaron 2014. Reproduction in captivity of the Central American bushmaster (Lachesis stenophrys, Serpentes: Viperidae), in Costa Rica. Cuad. Herpetol. 28: - get paper here
  • Fernandes, D.S.; Franco, F.L. & Fernandes, R. 2004. Systematic revision of the genus Lachesis DAUDIN 1803 (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetologica 60 (2): 245-260 - get paper here
  • Henderson, C.L. 2010. Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles of Costa Rica - A field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 198 pp.
  • Hilje B, Chaves G, Klank J, Timmerman F, Feltham J, Gillingwater S, Piraino T, Rojas E 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tirimbina Biological Reserve: a baseline for conservation, research and environmental education in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Check List 16(6): 1633-1655 - get paper here
  • JUSTINEK, UWE 2020. Für 6 Tage auf Schlangensuche in Costa Rica. Ophidia 14 (1): 15-26
  • KANE, DANIEL; BENJAMIN TAPLEY, AMANDA GUTHRIE, SOPHIE SPARROW, STAMATIOS A. TAHAS & CHRISTOPHER J. MICHAELS. 2022. Herpetoculture Notes: A novel approach to sexing Lachesis stenophrys (Serpentes: Viperidae) using radiography. Herpetological Review 53(1): 54–57.
  • KANE, DANIEL; BENJAMIN TAPLEY; CHESKA SERVINI; UNNAR KARL AEVARSSON; CHRISTOPHER J. MICHAELS 2021. Reproduction of Lachesis stenophrys (Central American Bushmaster) at ZSL London Zoo. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 564–566. - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Wilson LD. 2019. The endemic herpetofauna of Central America: a casualty of anthropocentrism. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1) [General Section]: 1–64 (e168) - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Ray, Julie M. and Patty Ruback 2015. Updated checklists of snakes for the provinces of Panamá and Panamá Oeste, Republic of Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 168-188 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Langebartel, David A.;Williams, Kenneth L. 1964. Herpetological type-specimens in the University of Illinois Museum of Natural History. [type catalogue] Illinois Biological Monographs (32): 1-80 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1951. A brief review ot the snakes of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (1): 3-188 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zamudio, KELLY R. & HARRY W. GREENE 1997. Phylogeography of the bushmaster (Lachesis muta: Viperidae): implications for neotropical biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 62 (3): 421-442 - get paper here
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