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Lamprolepis smaragdina (LESSON, 1829)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Lygosominae (Lygosomini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLamprolepis smaragdina acutirostre (OUDEMANS 1894)
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica (MERTENS 1928)
Lamprolepis smaragdina smaragdina (LESSON 1826)
Lamprolepis smaragdina viridipuncta (LESSON 1830)
Lamprolepis smaragdina moluccarum (BARBOUR 1911)
Lamprolepis smaragdina perviridis BARBOUR 1921 
Common NamesE: Emerald Skink, Green Tree Skink
G: Smaragdgrüner Glanzskink, Philippinischer Smaragdskink 
SynonymHinulia (Keneuxia) smaragdina LESSON 1826: 43
Scincus smaragdinus LESSON 1829 (fide LESCURE 2015)
Scincus viridipunctus LESSON 1829: 44
Lygosoma smaragdina — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 738
Scincus smaragdinus — SCHLEGEL 1839: 33
Scincus tressianus — BOIE (fide JACOBS & SHEA 2022)
Scincus oxycephalus REINWARDT (fide JACOBS & SHEA 2022)
Lamprolepis smaragdina — FITZINGER in TREITSCHKE 1842: 139
Keneuxia smaragdina — GRAY [1845: 79]
Lygosoma (Hinulia) smaragdinum var. viridifuscum PETERS 1873
Keneuxia smaragdina — BOCOURT 1880: 235
Lygosoma smaragdinum — BOULENGER 1887: 250
Lygosoma smaragdinum — BOULENGER 1897: 212
Lygosoma smaragdinum — WERNER 1901: 609
Lygosoma smaragdinum elberti STERNFELD 1918
Lygosoma smaragdinum nigrum STERNFELD 1918
Dasia smaragdinum — TAYLOR 1922
Lygosoma smaragdinum smaragdinum — STERNFELD 1918: 399
Dasia smaragdinum melas MERTENS 1929
Dasia smaragdina elberti — MERTENS 1930: 149
Dasia smaragdina — SMITH 1937: 226
Lamprolepis smaragdina — GREER 1970
Lygosoma smaragdinum — LIU YU 1970
Lamprolepis smaragdina — BROWN & ALCALA 1980: 76
Lamprolepis smaragdina — MYS 1988: 139
Lamprolepis smaragdina — FRANK & RAMUS 1995: 188
Lamprolepis smaragdinum — BAUER et al. 1995: 65
Lamprolepis smaragdina — MCCOY 2000
Lamprolepis smaragdina — WHITING et al. 2003
Lamprolepis smaragdinum — BAUER 2003
Lamprolepis cf. smaragdina — KAISER et al. 2013
Lamprolepis cf. smaragdina — KOCH 2012

Lamprolepis smaragdina acutirostre (OUDEMANS 1894)
Lygosoma acutirostre OUDEMANS 1894: 141
Lygosoma smaragdinum celebense DE ROOIJ 1915: 201 (non Lygosoma celebense MÜLLER 1894)
Dasia smaragdinum acutirostre — DAAN & HILLENIUS 1966: 131
Lamprolepis (smaragdina) acutirostris — KOCH 2011: 224

Lamprolepis smaragdina moluccarum (BARBOUR 1911)
Dasia smaragdina moluccarum — BRONGERSMA 1948: 491
Dasia smaragdinum moluccarum — TANNER 1950
Lamprolepis smaragdina moluccarum — SETIADY & HAMIDY 2006
Lamprolepis (smaragdina) cf. moluccarum — KOCH 2011: 224

Lamprolepis smaragdina perviridis BARBOUR 1921
Dasia smaragdinum perviridis BARBOUR 1921: 106
Dasia smaragdina perviridis — BURT & BURT 1932: 516
Dasia smaragdina perviridis — LOVERIDGE 1948: 340
Lamprolepis smaragdina perviridis — ZWEIFEL 1980: 418

Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica (MERTENS 1928)
Dasia smaragdinum philippinicum MERTENS 1929: 216
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — BROWN 1980: 76
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — BROWN et al. 1996
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — LAGAT 2009
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — SILER et al. 2012
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — BROWN et al. 2012
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — BROWN et al. 2013
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — SUPSUP et al. 2016
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — SANGUILA et al. 2016
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippina — GOJO-CRUZ et al. 2016 (in error)
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippina — MENESES et al. 2022 (in error)
Lamprolepis smaragdina philippinica — PITOGO et al. 2021

Lamprolepis smaragdinum pisangense BRONGERSMA 1931
Lygosoma smaragdinum pisangense BRONGERSMA 1931: 24
Dasia smaragdinum pisangense — DAAN & HILLENIUS 1966: 134

Lamprolepis smaragdina viridipuncta (LESSON 1830)
Scincus viridipunctus LESSON 1830
Dasia smaragdina viridipunctum — FISHER 1948
Dasia smaragdina viridipunctum — DRYDEN & TAYLOR 1969
Lamprolepis smaragdina viridipuncta — BRYGOO 1985: 26
Lamprolepis smaragdinum viridipunctum — BAUER 2003
Lamprolepis smaragdina viridipuncta — KOCH et al. 2009 
DistributionAdmirality Islands, Marshall Islands,
Indonesia: Lombok, Flores, Alor, Sumba, Savu, Roti, Timor, Wetar, Selayar, Sulawesi, Obi, Bacan, Ternate, Halmahera, Morotai, Buru, Ambon, Saparua, Haruku, Seram, Nusa Laut, Banda, Babar, Damar, Tanimbar and Kai Islands, Misool, Waigeo, Salawati and Irian Jaya (New Guinea), Timor-Leste, Solomon Islands [McCoy 2000]; Taiwan (fide LIU YU 1970), Philippines (incl. Mindoro, Bohol, Masbate), Micronesia (Lukunor Atoll, Uman District Islands etc.)

Introduced to Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan), fide Hileman et al. 2020.

Type locality: “Boston-Insel” [= Ebon Atoll, Marshall Islands]

moluccarum: Indonesia (Halmahera)

perviridis: Solomon Islands, Type locality: “Fulakora, Ysabel Island, Solomons”

philippinica: endemic for the Philippines (Panay, Luzon, Palawan, Cebu Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Camiguin Sur, Dinagat Island, Surigao del Norte); Type locality: Panay, Philippines.

pisangense: Indonesia (Pisang Island); Tartaruga, Pisang Island, Indonesia.

elberti: Type locality: Iliwaki, Wetar, Kleine Sunda-Inseln; Holotypus: SMF 14568 (= Kat. MERTENS 6250, 3a). female

viridipuncta: Pacific archipelagos of Palau, the Carolines, and eastward to the Marshall Islands (KOCH et al. 2009).  
TypesHolotype: iconotype; formerly in MNHN, now lost (illustrated in Lesson 1830: Planche 3, reproduced by Lescure 2015, Fig 3); the illustration was published prior to the written description, and hence the specimen illustrated is the holotype.
Holotype: ZMA.RENA 11401, Saleyer, Indonesia, collected M. Weber, 1889 [acutirostre]
Holotype: MCZ 7481 [moluccarum]
Holotype: MCZ, adult [perviridis]
Holotype: SMF 14570 (= 6250i in Boettger, 1893), collected O. von Moellendorf, 1893) [philippinica]
Holotype: MRB, paratype ZMA 11307 [pisangense]
Syntypes: ZMB 7582 [viridifuscum]
Holotype: iconotype; formerly in MNHN, now lost fide Lescure 2015. The illustration was published prior to the written description, and hence the specimen illustrated is the holotype [viridipuncta] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: On the basis of its palatal characters ( Fig. 1 ) and the single large pair of nuchal scales bordering the parietals, Lamprolepis is an alpha skink (Greer and Parker, 1968). Most alphas, however, have either 11 premaxillary teeth (e.g., Anotis, Emoia, Eugongylus, most Australian and Pacific Leiolopisma and ''Sphenomorphus" bignelli, "S." minutus and "S." pseudornatus) , or a spectacle in a movable lower eyelid, or permanent brille (e.g., all alpha Leiolopisma and Ablepharus). They can thus be distinguished from Lamprolepis, which has but 9 premaxillary teeth and a scaly lower eyelid. In these two characters Lamprolepis is similar to the primitive alpha genus Mabiiya; in fact, the only way Lamprolepis can be readily distinguished from all Mabuya, except the most geographically distant species in tropical America (exclusive of M. atlantica), is by the absence of keels on the body scales.
The only other alpha taxon not mentioned above is the African Eumecia. This genus encompasses one or two attenuate species with a reduced number of digits and is easily distinguished from the more robust, pentadactyl Lamprolepis. 
CommentTypes: The holotype of Lygosoma acutirostre [ZMA 11401] is also the paralectotype of Lygosoma smaragdinum celebensis (fide DAAN & HILLENIUS 1966).

Habitat: Arboreal.

Greer 1970 presents a table with diagnostic characters for the genera Dasia, Lamprolepis, and Apterygodon (now a synonym of Dasia).

Distribution: This is a highly dispersive species capable of long-distance dispersal, and has a clear history of over-water dispersal, it exhibits sharp genetic differentiation across its range

Variation: On Chuuk (Micronesia), Kepler (1994) reported at least 13 color morphs of L. smaragdina; About 66 percent of color-noted individuals were green. McCoy (1980) listed bright green and olive green as the colors commonly observed in various parts of the Solomon Islands.

Subspecies: Sternfeld (1920?) described Dasia smaragdina elberti, cited and described by DUNN 1927. Barbour (1911) described Dasia smaragdinum moluccarum from “Wahaai, Ceram” and Barbour (1921) described Dasia smaragdinum perviridis. Status unknown.

Type species: Hinulia (Keneuxia) smaragdina LESSON 1826 is the type species of the genus Lamprolepis FITZINGER in TREITSCHKE 1842. A summary of diagnostic features of the genus is provided by DAREVSKY & ORLOV 1994. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “smaragdinus” for “emerald,” an obvious allusion to the bright green ground color of this species. 
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