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Lampropeltis abnorma (BOCOURT, 1886)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Honduran milk snake
G: Pazifik-Dreiecksnatter [oligozona]
G: Honduras-Dreiecksnatter [hondurensis]
S: Falsa Coralillo de Guatemala 
SynonymCoronella formosa var. anomala BOCOURT 1886: 614 (preoccupied)
Coronella formosa abnorma BOCOURT 1886 (nom. subst. pro anomala)
Coronella formosa oligozona BOCOURT 1886
Lampropeltis polyzona blanchardi STUART 1935: 2
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — DUNN 1937: 8
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — SMITH 1942: 201
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — SMITH 1942: 246
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SMITH 1945: 202
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — LAURENT 1949: 12
Lampropeltis doliata blanchardi — HALL 1951
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 138
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis WILLIAMS 1978: 212
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — MEHRTENS 1987: 129
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum — CAMPBELL 1998
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — HALLMEN 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti — HERTZ et al. 2009
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SCHMIDT 2011
Lampropeltis triangulum — GUERRA-CENTENO et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — LAITA 2013
Lampropeltis abnorma — RUANE et al. 2014
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — ILLESCAS-APARICIO et al. 2016 
DistributionMexico (S Veracruz, SE Guerrero; possibly Chiapas, Oaxaca, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan), Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, W Costa Rica; possibly Belize and El Salvador

previously recognized subspecies of L. triangulum:

abnorma: Guatemala; Type locality, "Haute Vera Paz" (= Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

blanchardi: Mexico (Yucatan); Type locality: "Valladolid Trail near Chichen Itzi, Yucatan, Mexico."

hondurensis: carribbean side of Honduras, Nicaragua, NE Costa Rica; Type locality: "Cukra, Departmento de Zelaya,Nicaragua."

oligozona: Oaxaca, Chiapas (Mexico), Esquintla (Guatemala); Type locality: “Tehuantepec" and "western slopes of Guatemala”.

stuarti: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica (pacific side); Type locality: "Finca Los Cedros (100 m), Tecla, Departmento La Libertad, El Salvador."  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1888.0129, adult female, date of collection unknown, collected by M.F.Bocourt
Holotype: USNM 68239, young male [blanchardi]
Holotype: UMMZ 68239 [blanchardi]
Holotype: AMNH 12676, adult female [hondurensis]
Syntypes: MNHN 6083, 4428, 88-126-128; Lectotype: MNHN 6083, adult male (designated by WILLIAMS 1978) [oligozona]Holotype: SMF 43166, adult female [stuarti] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014.  Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359.

Illustrations: L.t.hondurensis in SCHMIDT (2004). Love (2012) shows a bicephalic L. t. hondurensis. 
EtymologyThe name abnorma is from the Latin meaning "deviating from the type," in apparent reference to its divergence from other members of the species. 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. F. 1886. In A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Vol. 3 - get paper here
  • Brown, T. W. 2018. Lampropeltis abnorma (Colubridae; Squamata): Documenting a Regurgitated Prey Item from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Captive & Field Herpetology 2 (1): 25-28 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1937. Notes on tropical Lampropeltis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (353): 1-11 - get paper here
  • Hall, Charles W. 1951. Notes on a small herpetological collection from Guerreo. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (4): 201-212 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. 2005. Farb- und Zeichnungszuchten in der Terraristik. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (55): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • HERTZ, A. & VAN DEN BERGHE, E. 2009. Atypical coloration pattern in a specimen of Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS, 1978, from western Nicaragua [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 22: - get paper here
  • Hilje B, Chaves G, Klank J, Timmerman F, Feltham J, Gillingwater S, Piraino T, Rojas E 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tirimbina Biological Reserve: a baseline for conservation, research and environmental education in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Check List 16(6): 1633-1655 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Laurent, R. 1949. Note sur quelques reptiles appartenant à la collection de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. III. Formes americaines. Bull. Inst. roy. Sci. nat. Belgique, Bruxelles, 25 (9): 1-20 [4]
  • Lillywhite, H.B. 2022. Discovering snakes in wild places. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, NM, 164 pp.
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  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Nahuat-Cervera, Pedro Enrique 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hobonil Educative Center, Tzucacab, Yucatán, Mexico. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 53-65 - get paper here
  • Ortiz-Medina, J. A., Cabrera-Cen , D. I., Nahuat-Cervera, P. E. and Chable-Santos, J. B. 2020. New distributional records for the herpetofauna of Campeche and Yucatan, Mexico. Herpetological Review 51: 83-87. - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Ruane, Sara; Robert W. Bryson, Jr., R. Alexander Pyron, and Frank T. Burbrink 2014. Coalescent Species Delimitation in Milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis) and Impacts on Phylogenetic Comparative Analyses. Systematic Biology 63 (2): 231-250, doi:10.1093/sysbio/syt099 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2015. Nattern. Arten und Tipps für Einsteiger. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (115): 28-41 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, T. 2011. Haltung und Nachzucht der Pazifik-Dreiecksnatter, Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (91): 52-57 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1942. Remarks on the Mexican king snakes of the triangulum group. Proc. Rochester Academy of Science 8 (4): 196-207 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. Studies on neotropical colubrinae. V. A new snake of the genus Lampropeltis from Yucatan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (309): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Williams K L 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacepede), milk snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 594: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1978. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Publ. Biol. Geol. No. 2, 258 pp. - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1988. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. 2nd ed. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Publ. Biol. Geol. - get paper here
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