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Lampropeltis annulata KENNICOTT, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mexican Milksnake
S: Falsa Coralillo Añillada 
SynonymLampropeltis annulata COPE 1860: 257 (nom. nud., cites ms. of KENNICOTT)
Lampropeltis annulata KENNICOTT 1861: 329
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — TAYLOR 1939
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — LINER et al. 1977
Lampropeltis triangulum dixoni QUINN 1983
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 209
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 436
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Lampropeltis annulata — RUANE et al. 2014 
DistributionMexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, possibly Coahuila, E San Luis Potosi, Hidalgo)

formerly recognized subspecies of L. triangulum:

annulata: USA (S Texas, S Tamaulipas to C Nuevo Léon, S ,E Coahuila (Mexico); Type locality: Mexico, Tamaulipas, Matamoras.

dixoni: S San Luis Potosí, NE Querétaro, Guanajuato [HR 30: 113] (Mexico); Type locality: "4.7 km W Jalpan, Queretaro, Mexico, elevation 625 m."  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3613, previously USNM 4293 (annulata)
Holotype: TCWC 29504, an adult female [dixoni] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014. Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359.

Distribution: populations of annulata from S Texas were either not included or not contained in the annulata clade as defined by Ruane et al. 2014. Not listed for San Luis Potosí by Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013. Not in Guanajuato fide Leyte-Manrique et al. 2022. Not in Querétaro fide Tepos-Ramírez et al. (2023).

Phylogenetics: Burbrink et al. 2022 found that annulata nested within L. gentilis but they do not draw any taxonomic conclusions from that, due to limited sampling. 
EtymologyThe name annulala is from the Latin word annularis,which means "ringed or annular,"and is in reference to the ringed or banded condition of the color pattern.

The name dixoni is a patronym honoring James R. Dixon, "who has contributed greatly to our understanding of Mexican herpetology." 
  • BURBRINK, FRANK T.; JUSTIN M. BERNSTEIN, ARIANNA KUHN, MARCELO GEHARA & SARA RUANE. 2022. Ecological Divergence and the History of Gene Flow in the Nearctic Milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum Complex). Systematic Biology 71(4): 839–858. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Fernández-Badillo, L., S. Y. Valdez-Rentería, C. Raúl Olvera-Olvera, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez , Norma L. Manríquez-Morán and I. Goyenechea. 2017. The snake Lampropeltis annulata, Kennicott, 1861, in Hidalgo, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 502–506 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A.;Johnson, Richard M.;Chaney, Alan H. 1977. A contribution to the herpetology of Northern Coahuila, Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 80 (1-2): 47-53 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Quinn, H. R. 1983. Two new subspecies of Lampropeltis triangulum from México. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 86: 113-135. - get paper here
  • Ruane, Sara; Robert W. Bryson, Jr., R. Alexander Pyron, and Frank T. Burbrink 2014. Coalescent Species Delimitation in Milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis) and Impacts on Phylogenetic Comparative Analyses. Systematic Biology 63 (2): 231-250, doi:10.1093/sysbio/syt099 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1939. Some Mexican serpents. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26 (13): 445-487 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Williams K L 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacepede), milk snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 594: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1988. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. 2nd ed. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol. - get paper here
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