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Lampropeltis micropholis COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Ecuadorian Milksnake
S: Falsa coral interandina 
SynonymLampropeltis micropholis COPE 1860: 258
Coronella micropholis — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 152
Coronella micropholis — DESPAX 1910: 370
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigeae DUNN 1937: 9
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigae — SLEVIN 1942: 474
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946 (in error)
Lampropeltis doliata gaigeae — TAYLOR 1951: 104
Lampropeltis doliata gaigeae — SMITH 1958: 223
Lampropeltis doliata micropholis — PETERS 1960
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana WILLIAMS 1978: 231
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigae — MEHRTENS 1987: 129
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triagulum gaigae — FRANK 1994: 22 (in error)
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — BARRIO & NAVARRETE 1999
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — KORNACKER 1999: 93
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — CARRERA et al. 2009
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — GABIROT et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigeae — LILLYWHITE 2014: 133
Lampropeltis micropholis — RUANE et al. 2014
Lampropeltis andesiana — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 73
Lampropeltis micropholis — CURLIS et al. 2020 
DistributionE Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador; possibly Venezuela

formerly recognized subspecies of L. triangulum now included in L. micropholis:

andesiana: Huila (Colombia), Venezuela (Tachira, Mérida) [HR 30: 174]); Type locality,"the hills near Cali, Valle, Colombia."

gaigae: mountains in Costa Rica, Panamá; Type locality: Chiriqui, Boquete, Panama.

micropholis: Costa Rica, Panamá, Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador; Type locality: Panama.

Introduced to the Galapagos Islands.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3427 (micropholis)
Holotype: USNM 151732 [andesiana]
Holotype: UMMZ 57967, adult male collected 24 March 1924 by H.T. Gaige [gaigae] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014. Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359.

Distribution: The occurrence of Lampropeltis triangulum in Venezuela was reported by Roze (1966) and subsequent workers (Lancini 1979; Kornacker 1999) as the subspecies L. t. micropholis. Barrio and Navarrete (1999) clarified the subspecies identity of the Venezuelan specimens and considered them to belong to L. t. andesiana [cited after RIVAS et al. 2012].

Mimicry: Lampropeltis triangulum mimicks Micrurus bernadi, M. limbatus and M. diastema (TORRE-LORANCA et al. 2006).

Similar species: Erythrolamprus bizona; see also mimicry with Micrurus. 
EtymologyThe name microphol$ is derived from the Greek mikros, meaning "small," and the Greek pholis, meaning "scale", apparently in reference to the small dorsal scales of this form.

The name gaigeae is a patronym honoring Helen T. Gaige, who collected the type.

The name andesiana is derived from the word Andes, in reference to the mountains in which the form occurs, plus the collective plural suffix -iana. 
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