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Lampropeltis polyzona COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesAtlantic Central American Milksnake
nelsoni: G: Nelsons Dreiecksnatter 
SynonymLampropeltis polyzona COPE 1860: 258
Coronella micropholis var. arcifera WERNER 1903: 250
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni BLANCHARD 1920
Lampropeltis polyzona polyzona — STUART 1935: 50
Lampropeltis triangulum schmidti STUART 1935: 1
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — SMITH 1942: 198 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — SMITH 1945: 200
Lampropeltis doliatus schmidti — KLAUBER 1948: 11
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — TAYLOR 1949: 202
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — TAYLOR 1949: 201
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — LAURENT 1949: 9
Lampropeltis doliata polyzona — MERTENS 1952: 65
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — DAVIS & SMITH 1953
Lampropeltis doliata nelsoni — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni — HARDY 1969: 173
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 139
Lampropeltis arcifera — ENGELMANN & OBST 1981: 93
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum smithi WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum conanti WILLIAMS 1978: 189
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli QUINN 1983
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — WEBB 1984
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — TANNER 1985: 634
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis polyzona — SHINE 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni — HALLMEN 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli — MATTISON 2007: 144
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — MENSE 2010
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — LANGNER 2014
Lampropeltis polyzona — RUANE et al. 2014
Lampropeltis polyzona — JOHNSON et al. 2017 
DistributionMexico (Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Puebla, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz; possibly in Guanajuato, Morelos, and Nayarit, W San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes)

formerly recognized subspecies of L. triangulum:

arcifera: Mexico (Morelos, Guerrero, Michoacán, Jalisco, W Querétaro); Type locality: “Mexico”, restricted to “Necaxa, Puebla” by Smith & Taylor 1950, but restriction considered incorrect by Williams 1978: 180.

campbelli: Mexico (S Puebla, E Morelos, N Oaxaca); Type locality: "4.8 km S Zapotitlan, Puebla, Mexico, elevation 1680 m."

conanti: Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Oaxaca); Type locality: vic. Chilpancingo, Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero.

nelsoni: Mexico (S Guanjuato, C Jalisco, Colima, NW Michoacán, Tres Marias, Sonora). Type locality: "Acambaro,Guanajuato, Mexico."

polyzona: Mexico (Vera Cruz, E San Luis Potosí, Tabasco); Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Cuatupe, nr. Jalapa.

sinaloae: Mexico (SW Sonora, Sinaloa, SW Chihuahua); Type locality: "32.4 miles north of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico."

smithi: Mexico (SE San Luis Potosí, E Querétaro, Hidalgo, NE Puebla, Veracruz); Type locality: "the Xilitla region, San Luis Potosi, Mexico."  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 9770 (polyzona)
Holotype: Institute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 9.422, adult female [arcifera]
Holotype: UTAM 4822, juvenile male [campbelli]
Holotype: UMMZ 85762, adult male [conanti]
Holotype: USNM 46552, adult male [nelsoni]
Holotype: LACM 38529, adult female [sinaloae]
Holotype: LSUM 274, adult male [smithi] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014 (who synonymized L. polyzona, L. t. arcifera, L. t. conanti, L. t. campbelli, L. t. nelsoni, L. t. smithi, and L. t. sinaloae). Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359.

Illustrations: L. t. sinaloae is on the title page of Elaphe 3/95. Illustration of L.t. campbelli and L.t.hondurensis in SCHMIDT (2004).

Distribution: Not listed for San Luis Potosí by Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013. L. polyzona s. str. is restricted to Mexico fide JOHNSON et al. 2017. reports from Belize and El Salvador (Mertens 1952) represent other species. 
EtymologyThe name polyzona is formed from the Greek polys meaning "many," and the Greek zone, meaning "a belt or girdle," apparently in reference to the high number of rings or bands typical of this subspecies.

The name arcifera is formed from the Latin arcus, meaning "arch," and the Latin -fer, meaning "to bear," apparently referring to the arch-like effect on the lateral aspects of the body caused by the black pigment crossing the red rings middorsally.

The name nelsoni is a patronym honoring W.W. Nelson, collector of the type, as well as many other important specimens from Mexico.

The name sinaloae is for the Mexican state of Sinaloa, which encompasses the major portion of the range of this form.

The name campbelli is a patronym honoring Jonathan A.Campbell,collector of most of the type series of this subspecies and "an ardent and competent field biologist." 
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