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Lampropeltis triangulum (LACÉPÈDE, 1789)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesLampropeltis triangulum abnorma (BOCOURT 1886)
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura (COPE 1861)
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata (KENNICOTT 1861)
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera (WERNER 1903)
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi STUART 1935
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli QUINN 1983
Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops STEJNEGER 1903
Lampropeltis triangulum conanti WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum dixoni QUINN 1983
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigae DUNN 1937
Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis (COPE 1860)
Lampropeltis triangulum multistrata (KENNICOTT 1861)
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni BLANCHARD 1920
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona (BOCOURT 1886)
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona (COPE 1861)
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum smithi WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila (COPE 1889)
Lampropeltis triangulum taylori TANNER & LOOMIS 1957
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum (LACÉPÈDE 1789) 
Common NamesE: Scarlet kingsnake
amaura: Louisiana Milksnake
annulata: Mexican Milksnake
celaenops: New Mexico Milksnake
gentilis: Central Plains Milksnake
hondurensis: G: Honduras-Dreiecksnatter
micropholis: S: Falsa coral interandina
multistriata: Pale Milksnake
nelsoni: G: Nelsons Dreiecksnatter
oligozona:
polyzona:
syspila: Red Milksnake
taylori: Utah Milksnake
triangulum: Eastern Milksnake
G: Rote Königsnatter, Milchschlange, Dreiecksnatter 
SynonymColuber triangulum LACÉPÈDE 1789: 86
Coluber doliatus — SHAW & NODDER 1795: plate 254
Coluber eximius HARLAN 1827
Coronella eximia — JAN 1866 ?
Ablabes triangulum — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 315 (?)
Lampropeltis triangula — COPE 1860: 256
Lampropeltis polyzonus - DITMARS 1934 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Coronella annulata - GÜNTHER 1893 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Lampropeltis polyzona blanchardi - SCHMIDT & ANDREWS 1936 (VILLA et al.)
Lampropeltis triangulum — STEBBINS 1985: 194
Lampropeltis triangulum — LINER 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma (BOCOURT 1886)
Coronella formosa var. anomala BOCOURT 1886: 614 (preoccupied)
Coronella formosa abnorma BOCOURT 1886 (nom. subst. pro anomala)
Lampropelfistriangulum ahnorma — SMITH 1942: 201
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — SMITH 1942: 246
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 138
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — WILLIAMS 1994

Lampropeltis triangulum amaura (COPE 1861)
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — BURT 1935
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 210
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — BARRIO & NAVARRETE 1999

Lampropeltis triangulum annulata (KENNICOTT 1861)
Lampropeltis annulata COPE 1860: 257 (refers to forthcoming ms. of KENNICOTT)
Lampropeltis annulata KENNICOTT 1861: 329
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 209
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera (WERNER 1903)
Cornonella micropholis var. arcifera WERNER 1903: 250
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — TAYLOR 1949: 201
Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera — WILLIAMS 1994

Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi STUART 1935
Lampropeltis doliata blanchardi — HALL 1951
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — WILLIAMS 1994

Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli QUINN 1983
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli — MATTISON 2007: 144

Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops STEJNEGER 1903
Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 209
Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Ophibolus gentilis BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 90
Coronella doliata var. gentilis — JAN 1866
Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 209
Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis — BARTS 2006
Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — HALLMEN 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — LAITA 2013

Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis (COPE 1860)
Lampropeltis micropholis COPE 1860: 258
Coronella micropholis — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 152
Lampropeltis doliata micropholis — PETERS 1960
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — KORNACKER 1999: 93
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — CARRERA et al. 2009
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — GABIROT et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum multistriata KENNICOTT 1861
Lampropeltis multistriata KENNICOTT 1861: 328
Lampropeltis multistrata – STEJNEGER 1891: 502
Lampropeltis triangulum multistriata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 209
Lampropeltis triangulum multistriata — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum multistriata — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni BLANCHARD 1920
Lampropeltis doliata nelsoni — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni — HALLMEN 2005

Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona (BOCOURT 1886)
Coronella formosa oligozona BOCOURT 1886
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SMITH 1945: 202
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SCHMIDT 2011

Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona (COPE 1861)
Lampropeltis polyzona COPE 1860: 258
Lampropeltis polyzona polyzona — STUART 1935: 50
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — SMITH 1945: 200
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — TAYLOR 1949: 202
Lampropeltis doliata polyzona — MERTENS 1952: 65
Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 139
Lampropeltis polyzona — SHINE 1994

Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — WEBB 1984
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae — MENSE 2010

Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti — HERTZ et al. 2009

Lampropeltis triangulum syspila (COPE 1889)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — BURT 1935
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 208
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum taylori TANNER & LOOMIS 1957
Lampropeltis triangulum taylori — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum taylori — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum taylori — CROTHER et al. 2012

Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 207
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionCanada (Ontario),
USA (Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, Arizona, Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana,
Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, S Maine)
Mexico (Campeche etc.), Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama,
Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador; elevation (Honduras): 1140 m

abnorma: Guatemala; Type locality, "Haute Vera Paz" (= Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

amaura: SW Arkansas, SE Oklahoma south to the golf coast of Texas and Louisiana. Type locality, original entry of type reads "?Mississippi," restricted by Schmidt (1953) to the vicinity of New Orleans, Louisiana. Williams (1978) suggested that the type locality be considered as unknown, inasmuch as the characteristics of the holotype do not agree with data taken from specimens from New Orleans and vicinity.

andesiana: Huila (Colombia), Venezuela (Tachira, Mérida) [HR 30: 174]); Type locality,"the hills near Cali, Valle, Colombia."

annulata: S Texas, S Tamaulipas to C Nuevo Léon, S ,E Coahuila (Mexico); Type locality: Mexico, Tamaulipas, Matamoras.

arcifera: Morelos, Guerrero, Michoacán, Jalisco, W Querétaro (Mexico)

blanchardi: Mexico (Yucatan); Type locality: "Valladolid Trail near Chichen Itzi, Yucatan, Mexico."

campbelli: S Puebla, E Morelos, N Oaxaca (Mexico)

celaenops: SW Texas, E New Mexico

conanti: Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Oaxaca (Mexico); Type locality: vic. Chilpancingo, Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero.

dixoni: S San Luis Potosí, NE Querétaro, Guanajuato [HR 30: 113] (Mexico)

gaigae: mountains in Costa Rica, Panamá; Type locality: Chiriqui, Boquete, Panama.

gentilis: Kansas, W Oklahoma, E Colorado, Texas panhandle, C/SW Nebraska, C/W Kansas

hondurensis: carribbean side of Honduras, Nicaragua, NE Costa Rica

micropholis: Costa Rica, Panamá, Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador; Type locality: Panama.

multistrata: C/N Nebraska, C Montana, SW North Dakota, C Wyoming

nelsoni: S Guanjuato, C Jalisco, Colima, NW Michoacán, Tres Marias, Sonora.

oligozona: Oaxaca, Chiapas (Mexico), Esquintla (Guatemala)

polyzona: Mexico (Vera Cruz, E San Luis Potosí, Tabasco), Belize, El Salvador (Mertens 1952); Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Cuatupe, nr. Jalapa.

sinaloae: SW Sonora, Sinaloa, SW Chihuahua (Mexico)

smithi: SE San Luis Potosí, E Querétaro, Hidalgo, NE Puebla, Veracruz (Mexico)

stuarti: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica (pacific side)

syspila: S Indiana through NW Mississippi, W Kentucky, SE South Dakota through E Oklahoma, Kansas.

taylori: C/NE Utah, W Colorado, N Arizona

triangulum: Maine to Minnesota, Wisconsin, N Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, Illinois, Kentucky, S Quebec (Canada) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: apparently non-existent [triangulum; fide WILLIAMS 1994]
Holotype: MNHN 88-129, adult female, date of collection unknown, collected by M.F.Bocourt [abnorma]
Holotype: USNM) 5282, an adult male, date of collection, and collector unknown [amaura]
Holotype: USNM 151732 [andesiana]
Holotype: ANSP 3613 [annulata]
Holotype: UMMZ [blanchardi]
Holotype: UMMZ [conanti]
Holotype: UMMZ [gaigae]
Holotype: other subspecies see WILLIAMS 1994.
Holotype: ANSP 3427 [micropholis]
Holotype: ANSP 9770 [polyzona] 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Subspecies: Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides (HOLBROOK 1838) has been elevated to species status.

Illustrations: L. t. sinaloae is on the title page of Elaphe 3/95. Keogh (1996) could not distinguish among L. pyromelana, L. triangulum, and L. zonata. Illustration of L.t. campbelli and L.t.hondurensis in SCHMIDT (2004). Love (2012) shows a bicephalic L. t. hondurensis.

Distribution: The occurrence of Lampropeltis triangulum in Venezuela was reported by Roze (1966) and subsequent workers (Lancini 1979; Kornacker 1999) as the subspecies L. t. micropholis. Barrio and Navarrete (1999) clarified the subspecies identity of the Venezuelan specimens and considered them to belong to L. t. andesiana [cited after RIVAS et al. 2012].

Reproduction: oviparous. KREUTZ (2005) reports hybrids between E. guttata and Lampropeltis getulus californiae, between E. guttata and L. pyromelana, and between E. guttata and L. triangulum sinaloae/nelsoni!

Nomenclature: LACÉPÈDE’s name conserved through ICZN opinion 1463.

Size: Max. total length: 1.5 m

Abundance: in Honduras: rare

Lampropeltis triangulum mimicks Micrurus bernadi, M. limbatus and M. diastema (TORRE-LORANCA et al. 2006). 
References
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