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Lampropeltis triangulum (LACÉPÈDE, 1789)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies
 
Common NamesE: Eastern Milksnake
amaura: Louisiana Milksnake
syspila: Red Milksnake
G: Rote Königsnatter, Milchschlange, Dreiecksnatter 
SynonymColuber triangulum LACÉPÈDE 1789: 86
Coluber doliatus — SHAW & NODDER 1795: plate 254
Coluber eximius HARLAN 1827
Coronella eximia — JAN 1866 ?
Ablabes triangulum — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 315 (?)
Lampropeltis triangula — COPE 1860: 256
Lampropeltis amaura COPE 1861: 258 (footnote)
Ophibolus doliatus amaura — COPE 1875: 36 (part.)
Ophibolus doliatus parallelus COPE 1889: 385
Ophibolus doliatus syspila COPE 1889: 381 (part.)
Ophibolus doliatus collaris COPE 1889: 383
Lampropeltis doliatus syspilus — HAY 1892: 516 (part.)
Coronella annulata - GÜNTHER 1893 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Coronella triangulum collaris — BOETTGER 1898: 72
Osceola doliata syspila — COPE 1900: 891 (part.)
Osceola doliata parallela — COPE 1900: 893
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1917: 90 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — RUTHVEN 1919: 3 (part.)
Lampropeltis polyzonus - DITMARS 1934 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — BURT 1935 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — BURT 1935 (part.)
Lampropeltis polyzona blanchardi - SCHMIDT & ANDREWS 1936 (VILLA et al.)
Lampropeltis doliata amaura — KLAUBER 1948: 11 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum — STEBBINS 1985: 194
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 207
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 210 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 208 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum — LINER 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CROTHER 2000: 64 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 432 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CROTHER 2000: 64 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 434 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 425
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura — CROTHER et al. 2012 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum syspila — CROTHER et al. 2012 (part.)
Lampropeltis triangulum — RUANE et al. 2014 
DistributionCanada (Ontario, S Quebec),
USA (Illinois, Minnesota, Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, N Louisiana, N Mississippi, N Alabama, N Georgia, N South Carolina, N North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, S Maine)

Type locality: “America” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: apparently non-existent (fide WILLIAMS 1994) 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014.

Distribution: revised after genetic analysis of Ruane et al. 2014.

Subspecies: Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides (HOLBROOK 1838) has been elevated to species status. Ruane et al. (2014) elevated a number of subspecies of L. triangulum to full species and synonymized the remaining subspecies as follows: Subspecies synonymized under L. micropholis include L. t. gaigeae and L. t. andesiana. Subspecies synonymized under L. abnorma include L. t. blanchardi, L. t. hondurensis, L. t. oligozona and L. t. stuarti. Subspecies synonymized under L. polyzona include L. t. arcifera, L. t. conanti, L. t. campbelli, L. t. nelsoni, L. t. smithi, and L. t. sinaloae. Subspecies synonymized under L. annulata include L. t. dixoni. Subspecies synonymized under L. gentilis include L. t. celaenops, L. t. multistriata, L. t. taylori, L. t. amaura (in part), L. t. syspila (in part) and L. t. annulata (in part). Subspecies synonymized under L. triangulum include L. t. syspila (in part) and L. t. amaura (in part). Ruane et al. 2014 do not mention

Reproduction: oviparous. KREUTZ (2005) reports hybrids between E. guttata and Lampropeltis getulus californiae, between E. guttata and L. pyromelana, and between E. guttata and L. triangulum sinaloae/nelsoni!

Nomenclature: LACÉPÈDE’s name conserved through ICZN opinion 1463.

Size: Max. total length: 1.5 m

Mimicry: Lampropeltis triangulum mimicks Micrurus bernadi, M. limbatus and M. diastema (TORRE-LORANCA et al. 2006). 
EtymologyThe name triangulum is derived from the Latin meaning "triangle," in reference to the shape of the anterior edge of the first blotch. 
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