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Lampropeltis zonata (LOCKINGTON, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Lampropeltis zonata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: California Mountain Kingsnake
multicincta: Sierra Mountain Kingsnake
multifasciata: Coast Mountain Kingsnake
parvirubra: San Bernardino Mountain Kingsnake
pulchra: San Diego Mountain Kingsnake
zonata: St. Helena Mountain Kingsnake
G: Bergkönigsnatter, Korallen-Königsnatter 
SynonymColuber (Zacholus) zonatus LOCKINGTON in BLAINVILLE 1835: 293
Bellophis zonata — LOCKINGTON 1876: 53
Ophibolus getulus multicinctus YARROW 1882
Ophibolus triangulus var. zonatus — GARMAN 1884: 66
Coronella multifasciata BOCOURT 1886: 616
Lampropeltis zonata agalma VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1923
Lampropeltis zonata herrerae VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1923
Lampropeltis zonata — FITCH 1936
Lampropeltis multicincta — LEWIS 1942
Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra ZWEIFEL 1952
Lampropeltis zonata pulchra ZWEIFEL 1952
Lampropeltis zonata — STEBBINS 1985: 192
Lampropeltis zonata — LINER 1994
Lampropeltis zonata multicincta — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis zonata multifasciata — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis zonata zonata — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis zonata pulchra — CROTHER 2000: 64
Lampropeltis herrerae — GRISMER 2001
Lampropeltis zonata — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Lampropeltis zonata — MYERS et al. 2013
Lampropeltis multifasciata — MYERS et al. 2013
Lampropeltis zonata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 360 
DistributionUSA (Oregon, Washington, California),
Mexico (Baja California Norte)

multicincta: Washington

zonata: S Oregon, N California; Type locality: Northern California.

multifasciata: USA (S California), Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: San Luis-Obispo, California. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
Reproductionoviparous. KREUTZ (2005) reports hybrids between Elaphe (= Pantherophis) guttata and Lampropeltis getulus californiae, between E. (P.) guttata and L. pyromelana, between E. (P.) guttata and L. triangulum sinaloae/nelsoni, and between E. (P.) guttata and L. zonata! 
TypesHolotype: CAS (lost fide MYERS et al. 2013).
Holotype: SDSNH 38667 [pulchra]
Holotype: CAS 56755 [herrerae]
Holotype: CAS 56865 [agalma]
Holotype: MNHN 1884.326 [multifasciata]
Holotype: MVZ 42407 (adult male) [parvirubra] 
CommentAuthorship: the original description in Blainville does not mention Lockington on the page of the actual description.

Keogh (1996) could not distinguish among L. pyromelana, L. triangulum, and L. zonata. CROTHER (2000) gives “1876” as the year of description.

Subspecies: COLLINS (1991) elevates some of the subspecies to full species status. RODRÍGUEZ-ROBLES et al. (1999) states that “the two main colour pattern characters used to define the subspecies of L. zonata are so variable that they cannot be reliably used to differentiate taxonomic units within this complex, which calls into question the recognition of seven geographical races of this snake.” Collins & Taggart (2009) do not recognize subspecies either. MYERS et al. (2013) split L. zonata into L. zonata and L. multifasciata based on molecular data. The two “species” are not distinguishable morphologically but they “inhabit distinct climatic environments”. The authors provide a distribution map of the two species. See MYERS et al. 2013 for a synonymy of the two forms. 
  • Basey, R. Terry. 2014. Lampropeltis zonata (California mountain kingsnake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 144-145
  • Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de 1835. Description de quelques espèces de reptiles de la Californie précédée de l’analyse d’un système général d’erpétologie et d’amphibiologie. Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 233-296 - get paper here
  • Blanchard, Frank N. 1920. A synopsis of the king snakes: Genus Lampropeltis Fitzinger. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (87): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. F 1886. In A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér Imprimerie Imper., Paris, Vol. 3
  • Burt, Charles E. 1936. The nomenclature of western coral king snakes, Lampropeltis zonata versus L. multicincta. Copeia 1936 (2): 94-98 - get paper here
  • Collins J T 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 22 (2): 42-43 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and <br />T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Fitch, H. S. 1936. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rouge River Basin, Oregon. American Midland Naturalist 17: 634-652 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L. 2001. Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci. 100(1):12-23.
  • Hansen, Robert W., Richard Cazares and Alexus Cazares. 2015. Lampropeltis zonata (California mountain kingsnake) predation. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 645-646
  • Keogh, J. Scott 1996. Evolution of the colubrid snake tribe Lampropeltini: a morphological perspective. Herpetologica 52 (3): 406-416 - get paper here
  • Kreutz, R. 2005. Farb- und Zeichnungsstandard der Kornnatter (Panterhophis guttatus). Kirschner und Seufer Verlag, Keltern-Weiler, 158 pp.
  • Lewis, Thomas H. 1942. Additional records for Washington snakes. Copeia 1942 (2): 129 - get paper here
  • McKeown, Sean;Morgan, Mary 1996. Two size records for California snakes. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 31 (12): 217-218 - get paper here
  • MYERS, E. A.; J. A. RODRÍGUEZ-ROBLES, D. F. DENARDO, R. E. STAUB, A. STROPOLI, S. RUANE and F. T. BURBRINK 2013. Multilocus phylogeographic assessment of the California Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata) suggests alternative patterns of diversification for the California Floristic Province. Molecular Ecology, doi: 10.1111/mec.12478
  • Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, E.D., Jr., & Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Press of Idaho, Moscow 332 pp.
  • O’Connor, A. 2012. The Columbia River george. HerpNation (9): 20-21 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp.
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A.; Denardo, D.F. & Staub, R.E. 1999. Phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata (Colubridae). Molecular Ecology 8: 1923–1934 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Thissen, R. & Hansen, H. 2001. Königsnattern - Lampropeltis. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Waters, Nick D. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Lampropeltis zonata (California mountain kingsnake). Herpetological Review 44 (2): 275
  • Yarrow,H.C. 1882. Description of new species of reptiles and amphibians in the US National Museum. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 5: 438-443 - get paper here
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1975. Lampropeltis zonata. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (174): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. 1952. Pattern variation and evolution of the mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata. Copeia 1952 (3): 152-168 - get paper here
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