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Lankascincus fallax (PETERS, 1860)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Ristellidae), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesPeters' Tree Skink 
SynonymLygosoma fallax PETERS 1860: 184
Eumeces tabrobanenesis GÜNTHER 1864 (part., fide SMITH 1935)
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) fallax — DERANIYAGALA 1931
Lygosoma fallax — SMITH 1935: 288
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) fallax — SMITH 1937: 220
Sphenomorphus rufogulus TAYLOR 1950 (fide GREER 1991)
Sphenomorphus fallax — TAYLOR 1953
Lankascincus fallax — GREER 1991
Sphenomorphus rufogulus — DAS 1996: 48
Sphenomorphus rufogulus — DE SILVA 1996
Lankascincus fallax — AUSTIN et al. 2004
Sphenomorphus rufogulus — RODRIGOI et al. 2006
Lankascincus fallax — ZIESMANN et al. 2007
Sphenomorphus rufogulus — ZIESMANN et al. 2007 
DistributionSri Lanka

Type locality: Ratnapura, Trincomali, Ceylon  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 3762, NMW 16630:1-9, see Bauer et al. (2003). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Compared to other lygosomine skinks, the skinks of this genus share the following combination of derived character states: size small (maximum SVL, 58 mm); nuchals undifferentiated; subocular scale row complete and non-interdigitating with supralabials; external ear opening reduced, approximately three times size of narial opening; postmental contacts first infralabial only; third pair of chin scales separated from infralabial row; outer preanals overlap inner; scales perfectly smooth; subdigital lamellae with postaxial groove basally; premaxillary teeth >11; palatal rami of pterygoids slightly expanded posteromedially; fat bodies absent; clutch size constant, two or one, depending on species (GREER 1991).
CommentType Species: Lygosoma fallax PETERS 1860 is the type species of the genus Lankascincus GREER 1991.

For a general description of the species in the taxon see Taylor (1950) and Deraniyagala (1953), and for some general morphometrics see Table 1 in Greer 1991.

MENDIS WICKRAMASINGHE et al. (2007) believe that Sphenomorphus rufogulus is actually the sub adult of Lankascincus fallax, and not a colour variation. The throat colour of Lankascincus fallax subadults is red. In Lankascincus fallax the throat colour is actually dark red and not black. 
  • Austin, C.C.; Das, I. & De Silva, A. 2004. Higher-level molecular phylogenetic relationships of the endemic genus Lankascincus from Sri Lanka based on nuclear DNA sequences. Lyriocephalus 5 (1-2): 11-22 [special issue] - get paper here
  • Balasubramaniam, A. and P. Krishnarajah 2004. Sphenomorphus rufogulus, a new record of an endemic skink from Arasaddy, Jaffna, Sri Lanka (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Lyriocephalus 5 (1-2): 23-24
  • Batuwita, Sudesh and Rohan Pethiyagoda 2007. Description of new species of Sri Lankan Litter Skink (Squamata: Scincidae: Lankascincus). Ceylon Journal of Science (Bio. Sci.) 36(2):80-87
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M. 1998. South Asian Herpetological specimens of historical note in the Zoological Museum, Berlin. Hamadryad 23 (2): 133-149 [1999]
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Das,I. 1996. Biogeography of the Reptiles of South Asia. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida
  • de Silva, A. 1996. The herpetofauna of Sri Lanka: A brief review. University of Peradeniya. Privately Published, 99 pp.
  • Greer A E 1991. Lankascincus, a new genus of scincid lizards from Sri Lanka, with descriptions of three new species. Journal of Herpetology 25 (1): 59-64 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Jayaneththi, Hareschandra Bandula 2015. Vertebrate fauna of Morankanda-Mukalana secondary forest patch in Sri Lanka: A checklist reported from 2004-2008 survey. RUHUNA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 6: 21- 41
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (02): 69-76
  • Peters, W.C.H. 1860. Verzeichnis der v. Schmarda aus Ceylon gesammelten Amphibien, und Beschr. d. neuen Arten. Mon. Akad. Berlin 1860: 182-186
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig. 1860. Über einige interessante Amphibien, welche von dem durch seine zoologischen Schriften rühmlichst bekannten österreichischen Naturforscher Professor Schmarda während seiner auf mehrere Welttheile ausgedehnten, besonders auf wirbellose Thiere gerichtet Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1860 (April): 182-186. - get paper here
  • Smith,M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Smith,M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1953. A review of the lizards of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35 (12): 1525-1585 - get paper here
  • Tiedemann,F.; Häupl,M. & Grillitsch,H. 1994. Katalog der Typen der herpetologischen Sammlung nach dem Stand vom 1. Jänner 1994. Teil II: Reptilia. Kat. wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 10 (Vertebrata 4): 1-110
  • Ukuwela, Kanishka 2009. Life History Traits of Three Sri Lankan Scincidae, With Special Reference to the Reproductive Seasonality of Lankascincus fallax. Hamadryad 34 (1): 172-175
  • Wickramasinghe, L.J. MENDIS; Rodrigo, R.; Dayawansa, N. & Jayantha, U.L.D. 2007. Two new species of Lankascincus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Sripada Sanctuary (Peak Wilderness), in Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 1612: 1–24 - get paper here
  • Ziesmann, S.; Klaas, P.& Janzen, P. 2007. Von Skinken und anderen Echsen [Sri Lankas]. Draco 7 (30): 18-23 - get paper here
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