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Lanthanotus borneensis STEINDACHNER, 1878

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Higher TaxaLanthanotidae, Platynota, Varanoidea, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Borneo Earless Monitor 
SynonymLanthonotus [sic] borneensis STEINDACHNER 1877: 160
Lanthanotus borneensis STEINDACHNER 1878: 95
Lanthanotus borneensis — BOULENGER 1885: 302
Lanthanotus borneensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 137
Lanthanotus borneensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 251
Lanthanotus borneensis — YAAP et al. 2012 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo: W Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sarawak)

Type locality: Sarawak  
TypesHolotype: NMW 16365 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Ear hidden; teeth fang-like, without grooves; no labial
shields; lower eyelid with a single, semitransparent shield. No gular fold. Upper surface tubercular, with rows of large tubercles, each of which bearing a horny keeled scale; abdominal scales flat, slightly imbricate. Limbs short, with short, clawed digits, which are granular below (de Rooij 1917: 138). 
CommentType species: Lanthonotus [= Lanthanotus] borneensis STEINDACHNER 1877 is the type species of the genus Lanthanotus STEINDACHNER 1878. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution on Borneo (Indonesia). 
  • ARROYYAN, AHMAD NAUVAL; EVY ARIDA & NIRMALA FITRIA FIRDHAUSI. 2021. First report on the feeding behavior of earless monitor, Lanthanotus borneensis and its predation on rice field frog, Fejervarya limnocharis in a captive environment. TREUBIA 48(2): 103–116. - get paper here
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1899. [Mr. G.A. Boulenger exhibited a specimen of the Bornean lizard Lanthanotus borneensis]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1899: 596-597 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. & Yaakob, N. 2007. Status of knowledge of the Malaysian herpetofauna. In Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. in: L. S. L. Chua, L. G. Kirton & L. G. Saw (eds.), Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, pp. 31-81
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Harrisson, T.H. 1961. The earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis). Discovery, July 1961: 290-293 - get paper here
  • Harrisson, T.H. & Haile, N.S. 1961. A rare earless monitor lizard from Borneo. Nature 190: 1213 - get paper here
  • Langner, Christian Georg 2017. Hidden in the Heart of Borneo-shedding light on Some Mysteries of an Enigmatic Lizard: First Records of Habitat Use, Behavior, and Food Items of Lanthanotus borneensis Steindachner, 1878 in Its Natural Habitat. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (1): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Maisano, J.A., C.J. Bell, J.A. Gauthier & T. Rowe 2002. The Osteoderms and Palpebral in Lanthanotus borneensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha) Journal of Herpetology 36 (4): 678-682. - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1967. The extracolumella and tympanic cavity of the "earless" monitor lizard, Lanthanotus borneensis. Copeia 1967 (1): 154-159 - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel Booker, Jr. & Bogert, Charles M. 1954. The systematic position of Lanthanotus and the affinities of the anguinomorphan lizards. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 105 (1): 1-142 - get paper here
  • Mebs, D., Lomonte, B., Fernández, J., Calvete, J. J., Sanz, L., Mahlow, K., … Zollweg, M. 2021. The earless monitor lizard Lanthanotus borneensis – A venomous animal? Toxicon, 189: 73–78 - get paper here
  • MENDYK, ROBERT W.; AVISHAI SHUTER & ANDREW KATHRINER 2015. Historical Notes on a Living Specimen of Lanthanotus borneensis (Squamata: Sauria: Lanthanotidae) Maintained at the Bronx Zoo from 1968 to 1976. Biawak 9 (2): 44 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1970. Zum Ernährungsproblem des Taubwarans, Lanthanotus borneensis. Salamandra 6 (3-4): 133-134 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1961. Lanthanotus: an important lizard in evolution. Sarawak Museum Journal 10 (17-18 (new ser.)): 283-285
  • Miller, M. R. 1966. The cochlear ducts of Lanthanotus and Anelytropsis with remarks on the familial relationship between Anelytropsis and Dibamus. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (60): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Nuwer, Rachel 2018. How a Reclusive Lizard Became a Prize Find for Wildlife Smugglers. Wired, 26 Dec 2018 - get paper here
  • Sprackland, Robert G. 1976. A summary of observations of the earless monitor, Lanthanotus borneensis. Sarawak Museum Journal 24 (40-41 (new ser.): 323-328 [1972?] - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1877. On two new genera and species of lizards from South America and Borneo. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 20: 160 - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1878. Über zwei Eidechsen-Arten aus Süd-Amerika und Borneo. Denkschr. Kais. Akad. Wiss. (Wien) 38: 93-96 - get paper here
  • Underwood, G. 1957. Lanthanotus and the anguinomorphan lizards: a critical review. Copeia 1957 (1): 20-30. - get paper here
  • Voronin, Alexander N.; Sergey V. Kudryavtsev 2019. Lanthanotus borneensis (Steindachner, 1878): captive husbandry and breeding . Russ. J. Herpetol. 26 (1): 57-62 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2015. Die Rückkehr der Urzeitechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 16-25 - get paper here
  • Williams, C., Kirby, A., Marghoub, A., Kéver, L., Ostashevskaya‐Gohstand, S., Bertazzo, S., ... & Vickaryous, M. 2021. A review of the osteoderms of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Biological Reviews - get paper here
  • Yaap, B.; G.D. Paoli , A. Angki , P.L. Wells & D. Wahyudi & M. Auliya 2012. First record of the Borneo Earless Monitor Lanthanotus borneensis (Steindachner, 1877) (Reptilia: Lanthanotidae) in West Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Journal of Threatened Taxa 4 (11): 3067–3074 - get paper here
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