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Lanthanotus borneensis STEINDACHNER, 1878

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Higher TaxaLanthanotidae, Platynota, Varanoidea, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Borneo Earless Monitor 
SynonymLanthonotus [sic] borneensis STEINDACHNER 1877: 160
Lanthanotus borneensis STEINDACHNER 1878: 95
Lanthanotus borneensis — BOULENGER 1885: 302
Lanthanotus borneensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 137
Lanthanotus borneensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 251
Lanthanotus borneensis — YAAP et al. 2012 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo: W Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sarawak)

Type locality: Sarawak  
TypesHolotype: NMW 16365 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Ear hidden; teeth fang-like, without grooves; no labial
shields; lower eyelid with a single, semitransparent shield. No gular fold. Upper surface tubercular, with rows of large tubercles, each of which bearing a horny keeled scale; abdominal scales flat, slightly imbricate. Limbs short, with short, clawed digits, which are granular below (de Rooij 1917: 138).

Description (species): Head depressed, oval, with broad, rounded snout, eyes very small, lower eyelid with a semitransparent shield; ears concealed; nostril small, oval, directed obliquely upwards and backwards, nearer the end of the snout than the eye. Head covered with small tubercular scales, enlarged on snout, fore- head and temples. Body long; back covered with regular longitudinal rows of large tubercles without ossifications, in six series, each tubercle with a horny keeled scale; rest covered with juxtaposed small flat tubercles. Lower part of
head with small scales, increasing towards the neck; a slight groove on the chin. Ventral scales feebly imbricate, flat, pointed towards the end of the body, passing gradually into the tubercles of the sides. Tail round, depressed at the base, tapering, as long as head and body. Lower part of tail with square scales, forming rows. Limbs short, with short, thick, compressed digits; claws slightly compressed, short (de Rooij 1917: 138).

Coloration: Reddish-brown above; lower parts yellow with brown marblings; lower part of head brown (de Rooij 1917: 138).

Size: Length of head and body 200 mm; tail 220 mm.; fore limb 30 mm. hind limb 40 mm (de Rooij 1917: 138). 
CommentType species: Lanthonotus [= Lanthanotus] borneensis STEINDACHNER 1877 is the type species of the genus Lanthanotus STEINDACHNER 1878. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution on Borneo (Indonesia). 
  • ARROYYAN, AHMAD NAUVAL; EVY ARIDA & NIRMALA FITRIA FIRDHAUSI. 2021. First report on the feeding behavior of earless monitor, Lanthanotus borneensis and its predation on rice field frog, Fejervarya limnocharis in a captive environment. TREUBIA 48(2): 103–116. - get paper here
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1899. [Mr. G.A. Boulenger exhibited a specimen of the Bornean lizard Lanthanotus borneensis]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1899: 596-597 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. & Yaakob, N. 2007. Status of knowledge of the Malaysian herpetofauna. In Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. in: L. S. L. Chua, L. G. Kirton & L. G. Saw (eds.), Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, pp. 31-81
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Harrisson, T.H. 1961. The earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis). Discovery, July 1961: 290-293 - get paper here
  • Harrisson, T.H. & Haile, N.S. 1961. A rare earless monitor lizard from Borneo. Nature 190: 1213 - get paper here
  • Langner, Christian Georg 2017. Hidden in the Heart of Borneo-shedding light on Some Mysteries of an Enigmatic Lizard: First Records of Habitat Use, Behavior, and Food Items of Lanthanotus borneensis Steindachner, 1878 in Its Natural Habitat. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (1): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Maisano, J.A., C.J. Bell, J.A. Gauthier & T. Rowe 2002. The Osteoderms and Palpebral in Lanthanotus borneensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha) Journal of Herpetology 36 (4): 678-682. - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1967. The extracolumella and tympanic cavity of the "earless" monitor lizard, Lanthanotus borneensis. Copeia 1967 (1): 154-159 - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel Booker, Jr. & Bogert, Charles M. 1954. The systematic position of Lanthanotus and the affinities of the anguinomorphan lizards. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 105 (1): 1-142 - get paper here
  • Mebs, D., Lomonte, B., Fernández, J., Calvete, J. J., Sanz, L., Mahlow, K., … Zollweg, M. 2021. The earless monitor lizard Lanthanotus borneensis – A venomous animal? Toxicon, 189: 73–78 - get paper here
  • MENDYK, ROBERT W.; AVISHAI SHUTER & ANDREW KATHRINER 2015. Historical Notes on a Living Specimen of Lanthanotus borneensis (Squamata: Sauria: Lanthanotidae) Maintained at the Bronx Zoo from 1968 to 1976. Biawak 9 (2): 44 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1970. Zum Ernährungsproblem des Taubwarans, Lanthanotus borneensis. Salamandra 6 (3-4): 133-134 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1961. Lanthanotus: an important lizard in evolution. Sarawak Museum Journal 10 (17-18 (new ser.)): 283-285
  • Miller, M. R. 1966. The cochlear ducts of Lanthanotus and Anelytropsis with remarks on the familial relationship between Anelytropsis and Dibamus. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (60): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Nuwer, Rachel 2018. How a Reclusive Lizard Became a Prize Find for Wildlife Smugglers. Wired, 26 Dec 2018 - get paper here
  • Sprackland, Robert G. 1976. A summary of observations of the earless monitor, Lanthanotus borneensis. Sarawak Museum Journal 24 (40-41 (new ser.): 323-328 [1972?] - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1877. On two new genera and species of lizards from South America and Borneo. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 20: 160 - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1878. Über zwei Eidechsen-Arten aus Süd-Amerika und Borneo. Denkschr. Kais. Akad. Wiss. (Wien) 38: 93-96 - get paper here
  • Underwood, G. 1957. Lanthanotus and the anguinomorphan lizards: a critical review. Copeia 1957 (1): 20-30. - get paper here
  • Voronin, Alexander N.; Sergey V. Kudryavtsev 2019. Lanthanotus borneensis (Steindachner, 1878): captive husbandry and breeding . Russ. J. Herpetol. 26 (1): 57-62 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2015. Die Rückkehr der Urzeitechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 16-25 - get paper here
  • Williams, C., Kirby, A., Marghoub, A., Kéver, L., Ostashevskaya‐Gohstand, S., Bertazzo, S., ... & Vickaryous, M. 2021. A review of the osteoderms of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Biological Reviews - get paper here
  • Yaap, B.; G.D. Paoli , A. Angki , P.L. Wells & D. Wahyudi & M. Auliya 2012. First record of the Borneo Earless Monitor Lanthanotus borneensis (Steindachner, 1877) (Reptilia: Lanthanotidae) in West Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Journal of Threatened Taxa 4 (11): 3067–3074 - get paper here
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