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Laudakia stellio (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLaudakia stellio daani (BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980)
Laudakia stellio stellio (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Roughtail Rock Agama
G: Hardun
Turkish: Dikenli keler 
SynonymLacerta stellio LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Iguana cordylina LAURENTI 1768: 47
Iguana agama — MEYER 1795: 16
Cordylus stellio — MEYER 1795:17
Agama cordylea MERREM 1820: 55 (nom. subst. pro Iguana cordylina)
Agama sebae MERREM 1820: 55 (nom. subst. pro Iguana cordylina)
Stellio antiquorum EICHWALD 1831: 187 (nom. subst. pro Lacerta stellio)
Lacerta stellio — CUVIER 1831: 120
Uromastix horrida WAGLER 1833: 902 (nom. subst. pro Lacerta stellio)
Agama stellio — BOULENGER 1885: 368
Agama stellio — WERNER 1935: 91
Agama stellio — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Agama stellio — GRUBER & FUCHS 1977
Agama stellio mykonensis XYDA 1983: 115
Agama stellio — SOWIG 1989
Stellio stellio — KASPAREK 1990
Stellio stellio — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Placoderma stellio — KASAPIDIS et al. 1996
Laudakia stellio — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 78
Agama stellio — CLARK 2000
Agama stelio [sic] — HONDA et al. 2000
Laudakia stellio — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Stellagama stellio — BAIG et al. 2012
Laudakia stellio — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020
Stellagama stellio — BAR et al. 2021
Laudakia stellio — KARAMETA et al. 2022

Laudakia stellio stellio (LINNAEUS 1758
Lacerta stellio LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Stellio cyprius FITZINGER 1843: 85 (nom. nud.; syn fide ANDERSON 1898
Agama stellio stellio — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1940: 24
Agama stellio stellio — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Stellagama stellio stellio — BAIG et al. 2012: 227
Laudakia stellio stellio — SINDACO et al. 2014

Laudakia stellio daani (BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980
Agama stellio daani BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980: 270
Agama stellio daani — IOANNIDES et al. 1994
Laudakia stellio daani — BUDAK et al. 1998
Laudakia stellio daani — SCHLÜTER 2010
Stellagama stellio daani — BAIG et al. 2012: 225 
DistributionGreece (incl. Lesbos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Kalymnos, Paxos, Corfu = Corfou, Chios, Samos, Agathonisi, Delos, Mikro Rhematiaris, Mykonos, Naxos, Rhineia, Tinos, Chalki, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Patmos, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Fourni, Ikaria, Thimena, Syrni, Karpathos, C Macedonia), Turkey

daani: Greece (Saloniki, islands in the Aegian Sea (Antiparos, Despotiko, Naxos, Paros, Samos, Thimena, Syrni, Chalki, Kalymnos, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Lesbos, Chios, Fourni, Ikaria); Turkey (W and SW Turkey), Macedonia; Type locality: “Zw. Agh. Kirikos u. Evdilos, Ikaria, Region Samos, Griechenland [= between Agh. Kirikos and Evdilos, Ikaria, Samos Region, Greece.].”

stellio: Greece (Cyclades: Mikro Rhematiaris, Rhineia, Mykonos Islands, Delos, Paros, Antiparos, Naxos), Sporades, Rhodos, Ionian Islands: Korfu); Turkey (central, south and southeast Turkey); Jordan. Type locality: Delos, Aegypto, Africa. Restricted to Delos Island, Greece by MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928. Restricted to Nissí Dílos (= Delos island), Greece, by neotype designation. Type locality restricted by neotype (Crochet et al. 2006) to “Delos Island, Cyclades”.

Stellio cyprius: Type locality: “Asia. Ins. Cyprus.”
Stellio cordylina: Type locality: “Cyprus.”  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesNeotype: ZFMK 2063 (designated by Crochet et al. 2006); former holotype: lost (Andersson 1900).
Holotype: ZSM 201/1978/2 (given as ZSM 201/1978-1) [daani]
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Stellagama). Tail arranged in distinct segments of two scale whorls, sometimes three in distal half. Vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, often larger than other dorsals scales. Gular scales keeled. Tail length about one and half times the distance of snout-vent [BAIG et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies mainly after WERMUTH 1967 and BAIG et al. 2012, with updates on taxonomy from Karameta et al. 2022.

Illustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003. Illustration of L. s. daani in Elaphe 12 (1): 61 [2004].

Subspecies: Karameta et al. 2022 do not formally recognize subspecies but also does not explicitly synonymize them (but call them “morphological subspecies”, indicating that they do not map exactly to genetic lineages). Hence they include all previous subspecies of stellio in either stellio, cyrpiaca, or vulgaris (see these entries). Previously, the taxonomic distinction of Laudakia stellio daani from Laudakia stellio stellio was challenged and tentatively rejected by Baig (1992) in his treatise of the stellio-group of ‘‘Agama’’. He demoted L. s. daani to the synonymy of L. s. stellio, whose distribution, he concluded, extends all the way to Israel. Baig mainly argued that Beutler and Frör (1980) had examined insufficient material but presumably he was aware also of the morphological conformity of the two nominal subspecies. Laudakia stellio and L. brachydactyla are semispecies according to Panov & Zykova (1998) and have recently been split into 2 subspecies, brachydactyla and salehi by LACHMAN et al. (2006). Kadry et al. 2020 synonymized Stellagama stellio salehi with S. s. vulgaris.

Distribution: The type locality restriction by Mertens and Müller (1928: 26) to Delos Island, Cyclades is invalid (no lectotype or neotype designation). L. stellio was removed from Israel where it is replaced by L. vulgaris which was revalidated by Karameta et al. 2022. See Bar et al. 2021 for a map.

Type species: Lacerta stellio Linnaeus 1758 is the type species of the genus Stellagama BAIG et al. 2012.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Adelynkimberleyea Hoser 2012, Agamatajikistanensis Hoser 2012, Jackyindigoea Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Laudakia. 
EtymologyPossibly named after the small spots which are reminiscent of stars on the sky.

Etymology (Stellagama). The choosen nomen is a composition of the nomina Stellio (as allusion of the formerly used name of the genus) and Agama (to show the affiliation to the Agamidae). But ‘Stella’ is also the latin word for star which refers to the English common name ‘starred agama’. 
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