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Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY, 1827

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Higher TaxaLeiocephalidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesLeiocephalus carinatus carinatus GRAY 1827
Leiocephalus carinatus aquarius SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935
Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus granti RABB 1957
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsdoni SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens STEJNEGER 1901
Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi SCHWARTZ 1959 
Common NamesE: Northern Curly-tailed Lizard
G: Rollschwanzleguan
armouri: Little Bahama Curly-tailed Lizard 
SynonymLeiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827: 208
Holotropis microlophus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 264 (part)
Leiocephalus macleayii GRAY 1845: 218
Liocephalus carinatus — BOULENGER 1885: 165
Leiocephalus carinatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 423
Leiocephalus carinatus — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 115

Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus GRAY 1827
Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827: 208
Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus — BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935: 360
Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935: 360
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — DENZER 1985
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 115
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936: 129
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus granti RABB 1957
Leiocephalus carinatus granti — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus granti — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus hodsdoni SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsdoni SCHMIDT 1936: 130
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsdoni — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsoni — PREGILL 1992: 40 (in error)

Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus virescens STEJNEGER 1901
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi — PREGILL 1992: 40 
DistributionUSA (introduced to SE Florida), Bahamas,
Cuba (+ Pinos), Cat Island I, Little San Salvador I, Isla de la Juventud, Honduras (WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002).
Cayman I, Swan I

carinatus: Cuba, northwest coast in Pinar del Rio, La Habana, and Matanzas provinces. Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Schwartz and Ogren, 1956, to La Habana, La Habana Province, Cuba.

aquarius: Cuba, southeast coast in Granma, Santiago de Cuba, and Guantânamo provinces.

armouri: Little Bahama Bank; Grand Bahama Island, Abacos. USA (introduced to SE Florida).

cayensis: Cuba, Jardines de la Reina.

coryi: Great Bahama Bank, western islands and cays.

granti: Cayman Is., Little Cayman I., Cayman Brac; Type locality: Cayman Brac

hodsdoni: Bahama Is.: eastem and southern Great Bahama Bank; Cat I., Little San Salvador I.

labrossytus: Cuba, south-central coast in Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus provinces; Bahia de Cochinos; Playa Larga. Altitudinal distribution sea level to about 1200 ft.

microcyon: Isla de la Juventud.

mogotensis: Cuba, central Pinar del Rio Province.

jus: Cayman Is., Grand Cayman I.; Swan Is.

virdscens: Great Bahama Bank: northern and eastern islands and cays.

zayasi: Cuba, Peninsula de Guanahacabibes.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Specimens from Villa Clara, Camagüey, and Holguin provinces are unassigned subspecifically; all specimens included in L. c. hodsdoni are not identical.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ R-38120, R-38110
Holotype: UMMZ [granti]
Holotype: NCSM 83084 (was: ChM 55.1.62) [aquarius]
Holotype: MCZ 38090 [armouri]
Holotype: AMNH 77758 [cayensis]
Holotype: FMNH 260 [coryi]
Holotype: UMMZ 114494 [granti]
Holotype: FMNH 22752 [hodsoni]
Holotype: AMNH 77757 [labrossytus]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.8.10.58, 1946.8.11.82 [macleayii]
Holotype: AMNH 81271 [microcyon]
Holotype: AMNH 77755 [mogotensis]
SYNTYPES MCZ 6023, USNM 52405 [jus]
Holotype: USNM 26758 [virescens]
Holotype: AMNH 77756 [zayasi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Terrestrial iguanian squamates of small (53 mm SVL) to large (to 200 mm SVL) size; nasal bones large; septo- maxilla reduced and free posteriorly; parietal roof constricted posteriorly in adults; nasal process of premaxilla overlapped dorsally and ven- trally by nasal bones; Meckel's groove usually closed and fused; tooth crowns variable, but always tricuspid posteriorly; anterior process present on interclavicle; posterior process of interclavicle broadly flared; sternum reduced (except L. herminieri): xiphisternal rods curve anteriorly crossing over postxiphisternal ribs; ribs on cervical vertebrae expanded as scoops; caudal neural spine sail-shaped; autonomic fracture planes beginning on fifth or sixth caudal vertebra; cephalic scales large, platelike; enlarged subocular scale present; body scales keeled; ventral scales smooth (except L. herminieri); antebrachial folds simple to complex; tail-curling behavior common [PREGILL 1992]. 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1917; Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Rabb, 1957; Schwartz, 1959; Vogel, 1965; Vogel, 1966; Petzold, Pederzani, and Szidat, 1970; Schoener, Slade, and Stinson, 1982; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Subspecies: Leiocephalus carinatus varius GARMAN 1887 has been considered as a valid species by recent authors.

Type species: Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827 is the type species of the genus Leiocephalus GRAY 1827.

Extinct Leiocephalus species:
Leiocephalus apertosulcus ETHERIDGE 1965; PREGILL 1992: 37
Distribution: Dominican Republic (as fossils); Type locality: Stratum 2, cave in Cerro de San Francisco, Municipio Pedro Santana, San Rafael (= La Estrelleta) Province, Republica Dominicana. Holotype: MCZ(VP) 3404. Right dentary.
Note: May have been persisted into pre-Colombian times since Etheridge found skeletal elements which have been assigned to this species.

Leiocephalus anonymous PREGILL 1984; PREGILL 1992
Distribution: Haiti. Type localiy: unspecified cave(s) near St. Michael de l’Atalye, Dept. L'Artibonite, Haiti. Holotype: USNM (VP) 340182 (right dentary). Note: only known from fossils. May have been persisted into historical times since Pregill found skeletal elements which have been assigned to this species.
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