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Lepidophyma flavimaculatum DUMÉRIL, 1851

IUCN Red List - Lepidophyma flavimaculatum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaXantusiidae (Lepidophyminae), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLepidophyma flavimaculatum flavimaculatum A. DUMÉRIL 1851
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum ophiophthalmum TAYLOR 1955 
Common NamesE: Yellow-spotted Night Lizard
G: Krokodilnachtechse
S: Lepidofima 
SynonymLepidophyma flavimaculatum DUMÉRIL in DUMÉRIL & DUMÉRIL 1851: 138
Poriodogaster grayii A. SMITH in GRAY 1863: 154 (syn. fide BOCOURT 1876 et SAVAGE 1963)
Poriodogaster grayii A. SMITH in GRAY 1864: 104
Lepidophyma flavomaculatum DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1878: 306 (nom. subst.)
Lepidophyina flavomaculatum — BOULENGER 1885: 326
Lepidophyma flavomaculatum — GÜNTHER 1885: 30
Lepidophyma flavicmaculatum obscurum BARBOUR 1924
Lepidophyma flavimaculata flavimaculata — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 152
Lepidophyma obscurum — TAYLOR 1955: 554
Lepidophynia maculatum TAYLOR 1955: 549 (ex errore)
Lepidophyma anomalum TAYLOR 1955: 554
Lepidophyma ophiophthalmum TAYLOR 1955: 558
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum obscurum — WERMUTH 1965
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum obscurum — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 163
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum — LINER 1994
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum — KÖHLER 2000: 105
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Lepidophyma flavimaculatum ophiophthalmum TAYLOR 1955
Lepidophyma ophiophthalmum TAYLOR 1955: 558 
DistributionSE Mexico (Tamaulipas, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama; elevation: 120-940 m

flavimaculatum: Atlantic slopes from S Veracruz to British Honduras. Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas. Terra typica restricta (H. M. SMITH & TAYLOR 1950): Río de la Pasión, Petén Province, Guatemala.

obscurum: Panama, Costa Rica; Type locality: Rio Chilibrillo, Panama.

tehuanae: Pacific slopes of Oaxaca and Chiapas (? Tonalá) in the vicinity of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Reported from Tres Cruces, El Limón, Cerro Arenal, La Concepción, Santa Efigenia, mountains near Santo Domingo, near Tehuantepec, Cafetal Concordia. Type locality: Cerro Arenal, 30 km west of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.  
ReproductionSome populations of this species in Panama and Costa Rica seem to be parthenogenetic. However, in other populations there are males present (BEZY & CAMARILO 2002). This species also has diploid-triploid specimens (BEZY 1972). 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 782
Holotype: BMNH 1946.8.30.44 [Poriodogaster grayii]
Holotype: MCZ 17747 [obscurum]
Holotype: KU 36250, collected by EH Taylor in 1954. [ophiophthalmum]
Holotype: USNM 111488; H. M. Smith collector. [tehuanae]
Holotype: UMMZ 101374 [tenebrarum] 
DiagnosisDefinition (genus): see Savage 1963: 27

DIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS). The species differs from L. dontomasi, L. radula, L. tarascae, L. lineri, and L. occulor in having 25 or more femoral pores; from L. dontomasi, L. gaigeae, L. radula, and L. tarascae, in having 170 or more dorsals; from L. dontomasi, L. lowei, and L. radula in having 40 or more gulars; from L. pajapanense and L. tuxtlae in having 27 or fewer large paravertebral tubercles; from L. smithii in having 23 or more lateral tubercle rows; from L. micropholis in having 225 or fewer dorsals; from L. chicoasense in having 31 or fewer fourth toe lamellae; from L. lipetzi in having 180 or more dorsals (99.3% of all L. flavimaculatum, 100% of Chiapas specimens) and a darker color pattern; from L. reticulatum in lacking a boldly reticulated color pattern on the gular surface; from L. mayae in having 33 or fewer lateral tubercle rows (99.6% of all L. flavimaculatum, 100% of Guatemala specimens) and 3 or more pretympanics (99.8% of all L. flavimaculatum, 100% of Guatemala specimens); from L. sylvaticum in having 4 or more pretympanics (99.3% of all L. flavimaculatum) and a lower second postorbital supralabial (0.83 or less; 99.3% of all L. flavimaculatum); and from L. reticulatum in lacking a bold reticulations on the gular surface .

Lepidophyma flavimaculatum is unusually variable in scalation because of geographical variation among its widely scattered localities. It is most similar to L. mayae, L. lipetzi, and L. sylvaticum. In areas where it occurs with L. mayae and L. lipetzi, individual scale characters segregate all specimens, indicating reproductive isolation. Univariate scale characters separate 99% of the specimens of L. flavimaculatum from L. sylvaticum, and the 2 species differ in karyotype for all localities examined (L. flavimaculatum from Chiapas to Panama´ and L. sylvaticum from Nuevo León to Hidalgo) (from BEZY & CAMARILLO 2002). 
CommentSubspecies and synonymy partly after Wermuth 1965. Lepidophyma flavimaculatum reticulatum TAYLOR 1955 and Lepidophyma flavimaculatum lineri SMITH 1973 have been elevated to species status.

Distribution: Not listed for El Salvador by KÖHLER (2000). Not in Yucatan state (Mexico) according to GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017.

Relative abundance in Honduras: rare

Type species: Lepidophyma flavimaculatum DUMÉRIL in DUMÉRIL & DUMÉRIL 1851: 138 is the type species of the genus Lepidophyma DUMÉRIL 1851. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from Greek words lepis, meaning "scale" and phyma, meaning "tumor," in reference to the enlarged tubercles on the body.
The species has been named after Latin flavus = yellow and maculatum = spotted and refers to the dorsal color pattern. The gender of Lepidophyma is neuter (Smith 1973). 
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