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Leposternon microcephalum (WAGLER, 1824)

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSmallhead Worm Lizard 
SynonymLeposternon microcephalus WAGLER 1824
Amphisbaena punctata WIED 1825: 500
Leposternon microcephalum FITZINGER 1826
Lepidosternon maximiliani WIEGMANN 1834: 21
Lepidosternon microcephalum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 505
Lepidosternon macrocephalum — SMITH 1848: 67 (in errore)
Lepidosternon phocaena DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 507
Lepidosternon microcephalum — GRAY 1865: 374
Lepidosternon phocaena — GRAY 1865: 375
Lepidosternon petersi STRAUCH 1881
Lepidosternon pfefferi WERNER 1910
Lepidosternon crassum STRAUCH 1881
Lepidosternon güntheri STRAUCH 1881
Leposternon guntheri — GANS 1967
Lepidosternum boulengeri BOETTGER 1885: 220
Lepidosternum strauchi BOETTGER 1885: 221
Lepidosternum affine BOETTGER 1885: 223
Lepidosternon boettgeri BOULENGER 1885
Lepidosternum onychocephalum BOETTGER 1885: 224
Lepidosternum latifrontale BOULENGER 1894: 345
Lepidosternum affine — GÜNTHER 1897: 365
Lepidosternum borelli PERACCA 1895
Lepidosternum camerani PERACCA 1895
Lepidosternon phocaena — KOSLOWSKY 1898
Lepidosternon laticeps PERACCA 1904
Lepidosternon carcani PERACCA 1904
Lepidosternon phocoena — BRYGOO 1990: 13 (as synonym)
Leposternon microcephalum — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 2000
Amphisbaena microcephalum — MOTT & VIEITES 2009
Amphisbaena microcephala — OLIVEIRA et al. 2010
Leposternon microcephalum — AVILA et al. 2010
Leposternon microcephalum — AVILA et al. 2013
Leposternon microcephalum — CACCIALI et al. 2016 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo),
Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Paraguay, Uruguay,
N Argentina (Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Entre Rios)

Type locality: ‘‘Dans les environs du village Mandiocca,. . . près de la montagne dos Orgaôs, sur un grand chemin bordé d’arbres,’’ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 31500.
Type: MSNTO R240 [Lepidosternum borelli PERACCA 1895]
Type: MSNTO R237 [Lepidosternum camerani PERACCA 1895]
Type: MSNTO R244 [Lepidosternon laticeps PERACCA 1904]
Type: MSNTO R238 [Lepidosternon carcani PERACCA 1904]
Lectotype: MZUSP 28386 [Lepidosternum latifrontale Boulenger, 1885]
Holotype: ZMB-R 1395 [Lepidosternon maximiliani Wiegmann, 1834]
Holotype: ZMB-R 1396 [Lepidosternon petersi Strauch, 1881] Holotype: MNHN (= MHNP) 488 [Lepidosternon phocaena Duméril & Bibron, 1839]
Holotype: ZIL 6654 [Lepidosternum affine Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 6656 [Lepidosternum boulengeri Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 316 [Lepidosternon crassum Strauch, 1881]
Holotype: ZIL 313 [Lepidosternon güntherii Strauch, 1881]
Holotype: ZIL 6653 [Lepidosternum onycocephalum Boettger, 1885]
Holotype: ZIL 6655 [Lepidosternum strauchi Boettger, 1885] 
CommentSynonymy: In a radical move, Gans (1971) synonymized most species of Leposternon with Leposternon microcephalum. See his discussion for detailed explanations.

Type species: Leposternon microcephalus WAGLER 1824 is the type species of the genus Leposternon WAGLER 1824, which was synonymized with Amphisbaena by MOTT & VIEITES 2009 (but considered as valid by most authors, see synonymy). 
References
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  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
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