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Leptodeira annulata (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaDipsadidae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesLeptodeira annulata annulata (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadii (HALLOWELL, 1845)
Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps DUELLMAN 1958
Leptodeira annulata rhombifera GÜNTHER 1872 
Common NamesE: Banded Cat-eyed Snake
G: Bananennatter 
SynonymColuber annulatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Sibon annulatus — FITZINGER 1826: 60
Leptodeira annulata — FITZINGER 1843: 27
Dipsas annulata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1141
Dipsas septentrionalis KENNICOTT in BAIRD 1859
Leptodira annulata var. COPE 1866
Sibon annulatum — COPE 1878: 33
Leptodeira annulata septentrionalis — SMITH 1944
Leptodeira annulata septentrionalis — TAYLOR 1949: 211
Leptodeira annulata - TAYLOR 1954
Leptodeira rhombifera - TAYLOR 1954
Leptodeira maculata - WERLER & SMITH 1952
Leptodeira septentrionalis - DITMARS 1946
Leptodeira annulata - GÜNTHER 1895
Leptodeira polysticta GÜNTHER 1895
Leptodeira ocellata GÜNTHER 1895
Leptodeira personata - GÜNTHER 1895
Leptodeira rhombifera GÜNTHER 1895
Leptodeira annulata polysticta — STUART 1935: 52
Leptodeira annulata polysticta — WEBB 1984
Leptodeira annulata — LINER 1994
Leptodeira annulata — PONTES et al. 2008

Leptodeira annulata annulata (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber annulatus LINNAEUS 1758
Eteirodipsas annulata var. rhomboidalis JAN 1863: 105
Dipsas approximans GÜNTHER 1872: 32
Eteirodipsas Wieneri SAUVAGE 1884: 146
Leptodira nycthemera WERNER 1901: 598
Leptodeira annulata annulata — AMARAL 1929: 78
Leptodeira annulata annulata — DUELLMAN 1958: 47
Leptodeira annulata — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 153
Leptodeira annulata annulata — DUELLMAN 1978: 247
Leptodeira annulata annulata — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980

Leptodeira annulata ashmeadii (HALLOWELL 1845)
Coluber ashmeadii HALLOWELL 1845: 244
Leptodeira rhombifera kugleri SHREVE 1947: 531
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi — DUELLMAN 1958: 43
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 153
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi — MERTENS 1972
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadii — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadii — BOOS 2001

Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps DUELLMAN 1958
Leptodeira albofusca BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps DUELLMAN 1958
Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 153
Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps - CEI 1993

Leptodeira annulata rhombifera GÜNTHER 1872
Leptodeira rhombifera GÜNTHER 1872: 32
Sibon septentrionale subsp. rubricatum COPE 1893: 347
Leptodeira ocellata GÜNTHER 1895: 172
Leptodeira rhombifera — MERTENS 1952: 67
Leptodeira annulata rhombifera — DUELLMAN 1958: 39
Leptodeira annulata rhombifera — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 153 
DistributionMexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize ?, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, French Guiana,
Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil (Paraná [HR 27: 216], Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondonia, Roraima, Espírito Santo, Bahia, S Ceará, Rio de Janeiro), Bolivia, Paraguay, N Peru (Pasco etc.)
Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Chaco, Formosa, Salta, Tycumán),
Trinidad, Tobago, Isla Margarita, Ecuador

ashmeadi: NE Colombia, N Venezuela (incl. Cojedes), Tobago, Trinidad, Isla Margarita; elevation 0-1000 m. Type locality: restricted to “vicinity of Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela (by DUELLMAN 1958).

pulchriceps: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay. Type locality: Bodoquena, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Holotype: Departamento de Zoologia, Sao Paulo Number 2578; J. D. Frisch, collector.

rhombifera: Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama. Type locality: Rio Chisoy, near Cubulco, Guatemala; Holotype: BM 1946.1.9.92; Osbert Salvin, collector.

Type locality: “America”; restricted to “lower Rio Amazon, Pará, Brazil” by DUELLMAN 1958. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Typesholotype: Zoologicka Institutionen Uppsala No. 9
Lectotype: ANSP 10093 [ashmeadi]
Holotype: AMNH R17367 [Sibon septentrionale rubricatum] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and Villa et al. 1988.
Females of this species may store sperm for up to 5 years and then give birth to young (PETZOLD 1982). Daza et al. (2009) erroneously synonymized L. maculata with L. cussiliris. Because maculata has priority, cussiliris becomes a synonym of maculata.

Type species: Coluber annulatus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Leptodeira FITZINGER 1843. The name of the genus is derived from Greek (leptos = slender, deire = neck).

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 rejected the (sub-) generic names Crossmanus Hoser 2012, Ginafabaserpenae Hoser 2012, Lukefabaserpens Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Leptodeira.

Tribus Imantodini. MYERS 2011 erected the new tribus Imantodini for the genera Leptodeira and Imantodes. In addition to molecular support, the loss of bifurcation of the sulcus spermaticus (Imantodes and some Leptodeira) or reduction to a small terminal fork or expanded flat area (other Leptodeira) sets off the mainly scansorial Imantodini from all other Dipsadinae except the terrestrial Mesoamerican-North American night-snakes, which appear to form an unnamed clade.

Reproduction: oviparous.

Hybridization: ROZE 1958 reports Leptodeira annulata annulata x ashmeadii hybrids. 
EtymologyEtymology: Named after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring.

Etymology (ashmeadi): Named after the collector of the types, Samuel Ashmead. 
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