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Leptodeira frenata (COPE, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Leptodeira frenata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesLeptodeira frenata frenata (COPE 1886)
Leptodeira frenata malleisi DUNN & STUART 1935
Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis (COPE 1887) 
Common NamesE: Mayan Cat-eyed Snake, Rainforest Cat-eyed Snake
S: Falsa Nauyaca 
SynonymSibon frenatum COPE 1886: 184
Leptodeira frenatum — COPE 1892: 677
Leptodeira yucatanensis — SCHMIDT 1941 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Leptodeira frenata — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 154
Leptodeira frenata — LINER 1994
Leptodeira frenata frenata — LINER 2007
Leptodeira frenata — WALLACH et al. 2014
Leptodeira frenata — BARRIO-AMORÓS 2019

Leptodeira frenata malleisi DUNN & STUART 1935
Leptodeira yucatanensis malleisi DUNN & STUART 1935
Leptodeira yucatanensis malleisi — STUART 1935: 53
Leptodeira yucatanensis malleisi — GAIGE 1936
Leptodeira yucatanensis malleisi — SMITH 1943: 442
Leptodeira frenata malleisi — DUELLMAN & WERLER 1955: 1
Leptodeira frenata malleisi — DUELLMAN 1958: 62
Leptodeira frenata malleisi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 154
Leptodeira frenata malleisi — LINER 2007
Leptodeira frenata malleisi — BARRIO-AMORÓS 2019

Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis (COPE 1866)
Leptodira annulata var. COPE 1886: 127
Sibon annulatum yucatanensis COPE 1887: 67
Leptodeira yucatanensis — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 151
Leptodeira septentrionalis yucatanensis — SCHMIDT & ANDREWS 1936: 176
Leptodeira yucatanensis yucatanensis — DUNN & STUART 1935: 1
Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis — DUELLMAN 1958: 64
Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis — LINER 2007
Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis — BARRIO-AMORÓS 2019 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, Yucatan), Guatemala, Belize; elevation 150-450 m.

malleisi: México (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo); Belize, Guatemala; Type locality: Tuxpeña, Campeche, Mexico.

yucatanensis: Mexico (Yucatán); Type locality: Yucatán; restricted to Chichén Itzá, Yucatan, México by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Type locality: Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.  
TypesHolotype: lost; was number 298 in the collection of the Geographical Exploring Commission of México, Fernando-Perez, collector.
Holotype: UMMZ 73230 [malleisi]
Holotype: USNM 24887 [yucatanensis] 
CommentSynonymy: Cope 1887 lists Sibon annulatum yucatanensis but refers to Cope 1866: 127 for the original description. However, that page only says “Leptodira annulata var.” without saying “yucatanensis”.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Venomous. Bites can be very painful, leading to bloody blisters and swellings which may take weeks to return to normal (Rowland Griffin on Facebook, with photos, 5 Feb 2022). 
EtymologyApparently named after Latin “frenum” = bridle, as the dark marking behind the snake's eye resembles a horse's bridle. 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • AVELLA, IGNAZIO; OLIVER JENNER & JOSÉ ANTÓNIO L. BARÃO-NÓBREGA. 2021. LEPTODEIRA FRENATA (Rainforest Cat-eyed Snake). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 162–163. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Barrio-Amorós, César L. 2019. On the taxonomy of snakes in the genus Leptodeira, with an emphasis on Costa Rican species. IRCF 26 (1): 1–15 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Colston, Timothy J.; José António L. Barão-Nóbrega, Ryan Manders, Alice Lett, Jamie Wilmott, Gavin Cameron, Sidony Hunter, Adam Radage, Etienne Littlefair, Robert J. Williams, Antonio Lopez Cen, Kathy Slater 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, México, with new records. Check List 11 (5): 1759 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1866. Fourth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18: 123-132 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. In: Ferrari-Perez: Catalogue of animals collected by the geographical and exploring commission of the Republic of Mexico, pp. 125-199 [Part III. Reptiles and Amphibians]. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 9: 182-199 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Catalogue of batrachians and reptiles of Central America and México. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 32: 7-98 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1892. A critical review of the characters and variations of the snakes of North America. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 14: 589-694 - get paper here
  • Costa, J. C., Graboski, R., Grazziotin, F. G., Zaher, H., Rodrigues, M. T., & Prudente, A. L. D. C. 2022. Reassessing the systematics of Leptodeira (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) with emphasis in the South American species. Zoologica Scripta 51, 415– 433;Corrigendum: Zoologica Scripta 51: 614-615 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W.E. 1958. A monographic study of the colubrid snake genus Leptodeira. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 114 (1): 1-152 - get paper here
  • Duellman, William E.; Werler, John E. 1955. Variation and relationships of the colubrid snake Leptodeira frenata. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (570): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R.; Stuart, L. C. 1935. A new race of Leptodeira from northern Central America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (313): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther, J. Rogelio Cedeño-Vázquez, Manuela Spaeth and Pablo M. Beutelspacher-García. 2016. The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 3. Leptodeira frenata, Ninia sebae, and Micrurus diastema. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (4): 930–947 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Nahuat-Cervera, Pedro Enrique 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hobonil Educative Center, Tzucacab, Yucatán, Mexico. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 53-65 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P, & ANDREWS, E. W. 1936. Notes on snakes from Yucatán. Field Mus. Nat Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 167-187. - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. A contribution to a knowledge of the herpetology of a portion of the savanna region of Central Peten, Guatemala. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications 29: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Torres-Hernández, LA, Ramírez-Bautista A, Cruz-Elizalde R, Hernández-Salinas U, Berriozabal-Islas C, DeSantis DL, Johnson JD, Rocha A, García-Padilla E, Mata-Silva V, Fucsko LA, and Wilson LD. 2021. The herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 15(2) [General Section]: 72–155 - get paper here
  • VÁSQUEZ-CRUZ, VÍCTOR & LUIS CANSECO-MÁRQUEZ. 2022. Geographic distribution: LEPTODEIRA FRENATA (Rain Forest Cat-eyed Snake). MÉXICO: VERACRUZ: Municipality of Paso del Macho. Herpetological Review 53 (3): 446.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinstein, Scott A. 2017. Non-Front-Fanged Colubroid Snakes. In: J. Brent et al. (eds.), Critical Care Toxicology. Springer Verlag, pp. 2453-2492 - get paper here
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