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Leptotyphlops conjunctus (JAN, 1861)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlopinae, Leptotyphlopini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCape Thread Snake 
SynonymStenostoma conjunctum JAN 1861: 189
Stenostoma groutii COPE 1875: 128
Glauconia conjuncta - BOULENGER 1890
Glauconia conjuncta — BOULENGER 1893: 67
Glauconia lepezi BOULENGER 1901: 8
Leptotyphlops conjunctus - LOVERIDGE 1933: 224
Leptotyphlops conjunctus conjunctus - LAURENT 1956: 82
Leptotyphlops conjunctus lepezi - LAURENT 1956
Leptotyphlops conjunctus lepezi — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 37
Leptotyphlops lepezi — BROADLEY 1998
Leptotyphlops scutifrons conjunctus — BROADLEY 1998: 26
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 25
Leptotyphlops scutifrons conjunctus — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 62
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 367 
DistributionRepublic of South Africa, Lesotho, W Swaziland

lepezi: W Democratic Republic of the Congo (fide BROADLEY 1998), Congo (Brazzaville) ?

Type locality: "Cape of Good Hope", South Africa. Restricted to Eastern Cape Province by BROADLEY & WATSON (1976:493)
Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMNS 2519A, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart.
Holotype: ZMB 22376, collected by R. Grauer, 1907–08; Boulenger, 1915a: 198 [latirostris].
Holotype: ANSP 3293; South Africa, Zulu Country, nr. Umvoti Mission [Stenostoma groutii COPE 1875] 
CommentDistribution: Not listed by BROADLEY & POYNTON 1998 for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire). However, these authors list both Leptotyphlops lepezi and Leptotyphlops latirostris which have been considered as synonyms of L. conjunctus. Not listed for Namibia by MARAIS 2004.

Synonymy: Leptotyphlops emini is said to be a synonym of L. nigricans by LANZA 1983. Glauconia lepezi is listed as synonym of Namibiana latifrons by WALLACH et al. 2014.

Subspecies: BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007 list conjunctus as a subspecies of L. scutifrons. Leptotyphlops conjunctus incognitus BROADLEY & WATSON 1976 and L. c. latirostris have been elevated to full species status. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Angel, Fernand 1925. Résultats Scientifiques. Vertebrata. Reptiles et Batraciens. [Mabuia (Mabuiopsis) jeanneli, Lygosoma graueri quinquedigitata, Ablepharus massaiensis]. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). - Paris, 2: 1-63.
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bogert,C.M. 1940. Herpetological results of the Vernay Angola Expedition. I. Snakes, including an arrangement of the African Colubridae. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 77: 1-107
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1901. Materiaux pour la faune du Congo. Batraciens et reptiles nouveaux. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Zool. (sect. C. ser. 1) 2: 7-14.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1908. On a collection of fresh-water fishes, batrachians, and reptiles from Natal and Zululand, with description of new species. Ann Natal Gov. Mus. (Pietermaritzburg) 1(3): 219-235
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1890. Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glauconia Gray, obtained by Dr. Emin Pasha on the Victoria Nyanza. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 6: 91-93. - get paper here
  • Branch,W.R. 1988. Field Guide to the snakes and other reptiles of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 328 pp.
  • Broadley D G. Wallach V. 1997. A review of the worm snakes of Mozambique (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) with the description of a new species. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 10 (11): 111-119
  • Broadley, D. G. 1971. The reptiles and amphibians of Zambia. The Puku, Occas. Pap. Dept. Wild. Fish. Natl. Parks Zambia 6: 1-143
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, D.G. & WATSON,G. 1976. A revision of the Worm Snakes of South-eastern Africa (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Occ. Pap. nation. Mus. Rhodesia Bulawayo, (BS) 1976: (8): 465-510
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Broadley, Sheila 1999. A review of the Arican wormsnakes from South of Latitude 12°S (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Syntarsus 5: 1-36
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A revision of the genus Leptotyphlops in northeastern Africa and southwestern Arabia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 1408: 1–78 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes thought to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, Vivian Frederick Maynard 1939. An account of the reptiles and amphibians collected on an expedition to south-eastern Rhodesia during December 1937 and January 1938. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 20 (1): 17-46. - get paper here
  • Gough, L.H. 1908. Catalogue of the South African snakes in the collections of the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, and the State Museum, Bloemfontein. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 1: 17-45 - get paper here
  • Hahn D. E. & V. WALLACH, 1998. Comments on the systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with description of a new species. Hamadryad 23: 50-62 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen 2010. A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique. Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Note sulla famiglia dei Tiflopidi, sui loro generi e sulle specie del genere Stenostoma. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. Genova 1 [1861]: 178-199 - get paper here
  • Laurent,R.F. 1956. Contribution à l'herpetologie de la région des Grandes Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge (Sci. Zool.), 48: 1-390
  • Loveridge,A. 1933. Reports on the scientific Results of an Expedition to the Southwestem Highlands of Tanganyika Territory. VII. Herpetology. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 74: 197-415 - get paper here
  • Manaças, SARA 1957. Contribuiçao para o estudo dos répteis (saurios e leptotiflopideos) de Moçambique. An. Junta Invest. Ultramar 9 (Pt. 3): 1-8
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Schlüter, A. & Hallermann, J. 1997. The Type Specimens in the Herpetological Collection of the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. A (553): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1912. IV. Zoologie II. Lfg. Reptilia. In: Schubotz., R. (ed.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907- 1908, unter Führung A. Friedrichs, Herzogs zu Mecklenburg. Klinkhard und Biermann, Leipzig: 197-279 [this volume was published in parts from 1911 to 1913 but this part was printed in 1912] - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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