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Lichanura trivirgata COPE, 1861

IUCN Red List - Lichanura trivirgata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Erycinae), Henophidia, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesRosy Boa
gracia: Desert Rosy Boa
roseofusca: Coastal Rosy Boa
trivirgata: Mexican Rosy Boa
G: Rosenboa, Dreistreifen-Rosenboa 
SynonymLichanura trivirgata COPE 1861: 304
Lichanura roseofusca COPE 1868
Lichanura myriolepis COPE 1868: 2
Lichanura trivirgata — BOULENGER 1893: 129
Lichanura roseofusca — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 138
Lichanura trivirgata gracia KLAUBER 1931
Lichanura ruseofusca gracia KLAUBER 1931: 307
Lichanura roseofusca gracia — TAYLOR 1938: 489
Lichanura ruseofusca gracia — TURNER 1959
Lichanura trivirgata gracia — STEBBINS 1985: 174
Lichanura trivirgata — STEBBINS 1985: 173
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — STEBBINS 1985: 174
Lichanura trivirgata saslowi (SPITERI 1987 in BARTLETT 1987)
Lichanura trivirgata arizonae SPITERI 1991
Lichanura trivirgata bostici SPITERI 1991
Charina trivirgata — KLUGE 1993
Lichanura trivirgata — LINER 1994
Charina trivirgata — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 203
Lichanura trivirgata gracia — CROTHER 2000: 65
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — CROTHER 2000: 65
Lichanura trivirgata saslowi — AKERET 2008
Lichanura trivirgata — WOOD et al. 2008
Lichanura trivirgata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — LAITA 2013 
DistributionUSA (S California, SW Arizona),
Mexico (Baja California, W Sonora)

arizonae: ?

gracia: USA (California, SW Arizona), Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: Randsburg, Kern County, California.

myriolepis: Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: ”northern part of Lower California [Mexico].”

roseofusca: Mexico (N Baja California), USA (S California); Type locality: “northern part of Lower California”.

saslowi: Mexico (Baja California Norte) [Wood et al. 2008]

trivirgata: Mexico (S Baja California, Sonora); Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntype: ANSP 6698; Cochran (1961: 195) lists USNM 15502 as holotype.
Holotype SDSNH 2995 [gracia]
Holotype: ANSP 6700; northern part of Lower California [myriolepis]
Holotype: ANSP 6699 [roseofusca] 
CommentSynonymy: The validity of SPITERI’s subspecies bostici and saslowi has been questioned by KLUGE 1993. Lichanura trivirgata arizonae is not listed by CROTHER 2000, nor by WOOD et al. 2008. We consider them as synonyms of L. trivirgata.

Illustrations: see several variants as high-res images in LAITA 2013.

Subspecies: Based on mtDNA data, WOOD et al. (2008) separated L. orcutti (including L. simplex as a synonym) as an evolutionary species from L. trivirgata (which included L. roseofusca and myriolepis as synonyms). However, they did not provide a diagnosis of this species. These author do not discuss/analyze arizonae, and mention saslowi only once and gracia a few times. These authors do not recognize gracia, roseofusca, myriolepis, and saslowi and therefore relegate them to the synonymy of L. trivirgata (although the authors of this paper do not explicitly address this issue).

Klauber (1931) noted that L. t. gracia and L. t. roseofusca ‘‘are virtually indistinguishable in scale counts”, but based the diagnosis on the color and pattern of the dorsal and lat- eral stripes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that L. t. gracia populations in California (within Lineage A) are actually more closely related to L. t. roseofusca than they are to their subspecific counterparts in Arizona (=Lineage B), which makes this subspecies paraphyletic (non-exclusive) as currently described [from WOOD et al. 2008]. 
References
  • Akeret, B. 2008. Gefahrenpotenzial Riesenschlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (72): 4-12 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. [Observations on some specimens of Vertebrata...; protocol of the Jan 21, 1868 meeting]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 2 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Gorman, George C. 1965. The distribution of Lichanura trivirgata and the status of the species Herpetologica 21 (4): 283-287 - get paper here
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1931. A new subspecies of the California boa, with notes on the genus Lichanura. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 6 (20): 305-318 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1933. Notes on Lichanura. Copeia 1933 (4): 214-215 - get paper here
  • Kluge A G 1993. Calabaria and the phylogeny of erycine snakes. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 107 (4): 293-351
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Love, Bill 2013. Boa-Fantasien Reptilia (Münster) 18 (101): 72-74 - get paper here
  • Lynum, Paul and Jason Pike. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Lichanura trivirgata trivirgata (Mexican rosy boa). Herpetological Review 44 (2): 275
  • Mattison, Chris 1996. Rosy boas Reptilian 4 (4): 36-39
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Preißer, W. 2008. Kleine Schlangen. Bede Verlag, 96 pp.
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2010. Vermehrung und Zucht von Riesenschlangen Draco 11 (44): 4-17 - get paper here
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Spiteri, D.E. 1991. The subspecies of Lichanura trivirgata: Why the confusion?. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 26: 153-156 - get paper here
  • Spiteri, David G. 1993. The current taxonomy and captive breeding of the rosy boa (Lichanura trivirgata) Vivarium 5 (3): 18-21;27;34
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, Leonhard 1889. Description of two new species of snakes from California. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 12 (766): 95-99 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, Leonhard 1891. On the snakes of the Californian genus Lichanura Proc. US Natl. Mus. 14 (878): 511-515 - get paper here
  • Switak, Karl H. 1997. Zwergboas Nordamerikas: in Natur und Terrarium TI Magazin (138): 39-44
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Turner, Frederick B. 1959. New localities for Lichanura roseofusca gracia in Inyo County, California. Copeia 1959 (2): 172 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Wood, Dustin A.; Robert N. Fisher and Tod W. Reeder 2008. Novel patterns of historical isolation, dispersal, and secondary contact across Baja California in the Rosy Boa (Lichanura trivirgata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (2): 484-502 - get paper here
  • Yingling R P 1982. Lichanura Cope. Rosy boa. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles No. 294: 1-2 - get paper here
 
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