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Liodytes rigida (SAY, 1825)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesLiodytes rigida deltae (HUHEEY 1959)
Liodytes rigida rigida (SAY 1825)
Liodytes rigida sinicola (HUHEEY 1959) 
Common NamesCrayfish Snake
deltae: Delta Crayfish Snake
rigida: Glossy Crayfish Snake
sinicola: Gulf Crayfish Snake 
SynonymColuber rigidus SAY 1825: 239
Tropidonotus rigidus — HOLBROOK 1842: 39
Tropidonotus rigidus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 577
Regina rigida — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 46
Tropidonotus leberis var. rigidus — JAN 1865: 230
Natrix rigida — COPE 1892: 668
Tropidonotus rigidus — BOULENGER 1893: 240
Natrix rigida — ALLEN 1932
Natrix rigida — CLAY 1938
Natrix rigida — BROWN 1947
Nerodia rigida — CONANT 1978
Liodytes rigida — PRICE 1983
Regina rigida — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 158
Regina rigida — CROTHER 2000
Regina rigida — CROTHER et al. 2012
Liodytes rigida — MCVAY & CARSTENS 2013
Regina rigida — WALLACH et al. 2014: 631

Liodytes rigida deltae (HUHEEY 1959)
Natrix rigida deltae HUHEEY 1959: 305
Regina rigida deltae — CROTHER 2000
Regina rigida deltae — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 167
Regina rigida deltae — CROTHER et al. 2012

Liodytes rigida rigida (SAY 1825)
Coluber rigidus SAY 1825: 239
Regina rigida rigida — CROTHER 2000
Regina rigida rigida — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 166
Regina rigida rigida — CROTHER et al. 2012

Liodytes rigida sinicola (HUHEEY 1959)
Natrix rigida sinicola HUHEEY 1959: 305
Regina rigida sinicola — CROTHER 2000
Regina rigida sinicola — DIXON 2000
Regina rigida sinicola — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 168
Regina rigida sinicola — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (E Texas, SE Oklahoma, S Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, S Alabama, S Georgia, N Florida (St. Vincent Island: [HR 31: 187]), South Carolina, E North Carolina, Virginia)

Type locality: “the southern states”

sinicola: Texas, Louisiana, Florida; Type locality: USA: Beaumont, Jefferson County, Texas.

deltae: Louisiana; Type locality: Paradis, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 16795
Holotype: UIMNH 1159, W.B. Robertson, (Herpetology Class 1948); May 2, 1948 [sinicola]
Holotype: TU 11969; erroneously given as TV in Gibbons et al. 2004 [deltae] 
CommentDiet: crayfish 
References
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown, Bryce C. 1947. Natrix rigida in Texas. Herpetologica 4: 23-24 - get paper here
  • Buhlmann, Kurt A.;Savitsky, Alan H.;Savitsky, Barbara A.;Mitchell, Joseph C. 1993. Regina rigida (glossy crayfish snake). USA: Virgina. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 156-157 - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A synopsis of the North American Water Snakes of the genus Natrix. Copeia 1938 (4): 173-182 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Curtis, Lawrence;Tinkle, Donald W. 1951. The striped water snake, Natrix rigida (Say), in Texas. Field & Laboratory 19 (2): 72-74
  • Dillman, Will; Mousseau, Timothy. 2007. Regina rigida (Glossy Crayfish Snake). Melanism. Herpetological Review 38 (4):469 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Eimermacher, Thomas G.; Green, Damian T.; Watkins, Lucas 2006. Regina rigida (Glossy Crayfish Snake). Maximum size. Herpetological Review 37 (4): 480 - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Gibbons, J. W. & Mike Dorcas 2004. North American Water Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, 496 pp.
  • Harris, Bess B., Kevin M. Enge and Jonathan D. Mays. 2016. Geographic Distribution: Regina rigida rigida (Eastern Glossy Swampsnake). Herpetological Review 47 (1): 84
  • Hart, Morgan P., Davega, Henry, Arnott, Stephen A., Harold, Antony S. and Grosse, Andrew M. 2016. Regina rigida (Glossy Crayfish Snake) Predation Herpetological Review 47 (4): 688
  • Hibbitts, Toby J.;Hibbits, Terry L. 1998. Geographic distribution. Regina rigida sinicola. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 174 - get paper here
  • Holbrook, John E. 1842. North American Herpetology; or, A description of the reptiles inhabiting the United States. Vol I (2nd ed.). J. Dobson, Philadelphia, 152 pp. - get paper here
  • Huheey, James E. 1959. Distribution and variation in the glossy water snake, Natrix rigida (Say). Copeia 1959 (4): 303-311 - get paper here
  • Huheey, James E.;Palmer, William M. 1962. The eastern glossy water snake, Regina rigida rigida, in North Carolina. Herpetologica 18 (2): 140-141 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Linzey, D.W., & Clifford, M.J. 1981. Snakes of Virgina. Univ. Press of Virginia, Charlottesville 159 pp.
  • McAllister, C. T., H. W. Robison and D. A. Neely 2016. Geographic Distribution: Liodytes rigida sinicola (Gulf Swampsnake). Herpetological Review 47(3): 427.
  • McVay, John David; Bryan Carstens 2013. Testing monophyly without well-supported gene trees: Evidence from multi-locus nuclear data conflicts with existing taxonomy in the snake tribe Thamnophiini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 68, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 425–431 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Palmer, William M. 1962. The eastern glossy water snake, Regina rigida rigida, in North Carolina. Herpetologica 18 (2): 140-141 - get paper here
  • Price,R. 1983. Microdermatoglyphics: the Liodytes-Regiona problem. Journal of Herpetology 17 (3): 292-294 - get paper here
  • Say, T. 1824. Description of three new species of Coluber, inhabiting the United States. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4 (2): 237-242 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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