Liolaemus basadrei VALLADARES-FAÚNDEZ, LEÓN, CHIPANA, NAVARRO GUZMÁN, IGNACIO-APAZA, MUSAJA, LANGSTROTH, AGUILAR-KIRIGIN, GUTIERREZ & ABDALA, 2021
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Liolaemus basadrei?
|Higher Taxa||Liolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)|
|Common Names||E: Hispaniolan Vineboa|
|Synonym||Liolaemus basadrei VALLADARES-FAÚNDEZ, LEÓN, CHIPANA, NAVARRO GUZMÁN, IGNACIO-APAZA, MUSAJA, LANGSTROTH, AGUILAR-KIRIGIN, GUTIERREZ & ABDALA 2021|
|Distribution||Peru (Jorge Basadre)|
Type locality: east slope of an unnamed hill east of Locumba Valley, 17°44’38”S, 70°45’41”W; 897 m, Jorge Basadre Province, Tacna Region, Peru
|Types||Holotype. HP20CBT, an adult male (Fig. 2A–B); collected on 25 January 2019, Pablo Franco, Pablo Valladares-Faúndez, Cesar Chipana, Marco Navarro and Javier Ignacio collectors.|
Allotype. HP21CBT, an adult female (Fig. 2C–D), from the east slope of an unnamed hill east of Locumba Valley, 17°45’21”S, 70°45’51”W; 761 m, Jorge Basadre Province, Tacna Region, Peru; collected on 25 January 2019, same collectors.
Paratypes. Two adults: HP22CBT and HP23CBT, from the east slope of an unnamed hill east of Locumba Valley, one male and one female. From the high voltage tower to the Pan-American highway, on a steep slope (17°44’50”S, 70°46’06”W); 970 m, same collectors.
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis: Liolaemus basadrei sp. nov. belongs to the L. montanus group (sensu Etheridge 1995; Abdala et al. 2020). This species differs from the species of the L. boulengeri group of the L. montanus group series by the absence of a patch of enlarged scales on the posterior thigh of the hind limb in the new species (Etheridge 1995; Abdala 2007). In relation to the L. montanus group, L. basadrei sp. nov. differs from L. andinus, L. annectens, L. cazianae, L. chlorostictus, L. dorbignyi, L. duellmani, L. eleodori, L. erguetae, L. erroneus, L. etheridgei, L. evaristoi, L. fabiani, L. famatinae, L. fittkaui, L. forsteri, L. foxi, L. gracielae, L. griseus, L. hajeki, L. halonastes, L. huacahuasicus, L. huayra, L. inti, L. islugensis, L. jamesi, L. juanortizi, L. lenzi, L. melanogaster, L. montanus, L. molinai, L. multicolor, L. nigriceps, L. orko, L. ortizi, L. pachecoi, L. pantherinus, L. patriciaiturrae, L. pleopholis, L. poecilochromus, L. polystictus, L. pulcherrimus, L. puritamensis, L. qalaywa, L. robertoi, L. robustus, L. rosenmanni, L. ruibali, L. schmidti, L. scrocchii, L. signifer, L. tajzara, L. thomasi, L. vallecurensis, L. victormoralesii, L. vulcanus, and L. williamsi by possessing isognathus jaws and tail shorter than Snout-Vent Length (SVL). Of the remaining species, L. basadrei sp. nov. are robust lizards (SVL = 88.2 mm) differing from L. andinus, L. anqapuka, L. audituvelatus, L. balagueri, L. cazianiae, L. chiribaya, L. duellmani, L. eleodori, L. erguetae, L. erroneus, L. etheridgei, L. evaristoi, L. fabiani, L. famatinae, L. fittkaui, L. foxi, L. gracielae, L. griseus, L. hajeki, L. halonastes, L. huacahuasicus, L. islugensis, L. molinai, L. montanus, L. multicolor, L. nazca, L. orko, L. omorfi, L. ortizi, L. pantherinus, L. poconchilensis, L. poecilochromus, L. porosus, L. pulcherrimus, L. reichei, L. robertoi, L. rosenmanni, L. ruibali, L. smidthi, L. stolzmanni, L. tajzara, L. thomasi, L. torresi, L. vallecurensis, and L. williamnsi which are smaller (SVL between 50–80 mm). The dorsal scales on the body are smooth and subimbricate in Liolaemus basadrei sp. nov., differing from species that have dorsal scales with an evident keel:|
L. aymararum, L. etheridgei, L. famatinae, L. fittkaui,
L. griseus, L. huacahuaicus, L. montanus, L. orko, L. oritizi, L. polystictus, L. pulcherrimus, L. qalaywa, L. signifer, L. tajzara, L. thomasi, L. victormoralesi, and L. williamsi. Liolaemus insolitus is the most similar among these lizards to the new species, but it differs principally by the number of scales along the dorso-thoracic region (scales between occiput and anterior border of thigh, 63 in L. insolitus versus 86–89 in the new species), number of ventral scales (70–78 in L. insolitus versus 79–85 in the new species), and the dorsal pattern in L. insolitus has fewer dark red scales and more sky-blue scales.
Phylogenetic results indicate that L. basadrei belongs to the clade of L. reichei (Abdala et al. 2020). L. basadrei sp. nov. differs from L. anqapuka, L. audituvelatus, L. balagueri, L. chiribaya, L. insolitus, L. nazca, L. poconchilensis, L. reichei, L. stolzmanni, and L. torresi because the latter have a smaller size (< 70 mm SVL) and the new species is over 88 mm. Liolaemus basadrei sp. nov. also differs from L. balagueri, L. chiribaya, L. insolitus, L. nazca, L. poconchilensis, L. reichei, and L. torresi by having a greater number of scales around the body (74–82 vs. < 72) and a greater number of dorsal scales on the body (84–92 vs. < 80). The number of ventral scales is greater than in L. balagueri, L. chiribaya, L. insolitus and L. nazca (79–85 vs. < 79). The presence of blue scales on the body also differentiates it from species that do not have them: L. audituvelatus, L. balagueri, L. nazca, L. reichei, and L. torresi.
Coloration. The holotype has a dark red head and dorsal body color. Each side of the temporal region and body has sky blue scales that reach laterally to the tail. Ventrally there is a heavily variegated coloration, more intense on the lateral side and throat, ventral side color yellow with sandy brown spots, a pattern repeated on fore and hind limbs, and until the end of tail. Dorsal tail dark orange. Throat predominantly yellow, with sky blue scales and some red scales.
Variation. Variations based on four specimens, two males and two females, collected from the same site as the holotype, are presented in Table 1. The females present a sandy brown colored head, similar to the sand on which they live. On the dorsal neck are two medium black spots which are in parallel along to the dorsal body, where they become larger and reach to the first part of the tail. Scapular area shows a short black spot subsequently followed by a white spot, a pattern which is along the dorso-thoracic region. Ventrally there is a slightly variegated pattern, more intense on the throat, ventral side color white with light gray spots, a pattern repeated on fore and hind limbs, and until the end of the tail. Female has dorsal scales well defined, not fragmented, circumorbital semicircles well- defined, large, and unfragmented subocular, parietals large, pentagonal, and well-defined. Differences are mainly in the form of interparietal, which in both females is hexagonal, while in the males it is irregular. Variation in the number and form of the scales: temporals eight between postocular and anterior margin of ear, 13 lorilabials, without a row of small scales between the subocular and lorilabials, eight supralabials, middorsal scales from occiput to point even with anterior margin of thigh 88. Elbow scales semitriangular and wider than long, but lightly keeled. The tail has a spotted pattern. Forelimb with small dark spots, and hindlimbs variegated with black and dark brown spots.
The dorsal area of the female is light brown or pinkish, and the head has dark brown and gray spots with an irregular shape and order. Lateral area of the head with dark brown spots that cross the muzzle transversely. Back of neck and body of the same color as the head, with large brown spots, arranged two on each side, bordered by a row of small white scales, a pattern that is repeated throughout the entire body. Paravertebral region with small brown spots, while in the lumbar area a greater number of white scales are observed. Along the tail, the dorsal pattern is lost and dark brown spots are observed in an irregular manner and shape, both dorsally and laterally. Forelimb and hindlimb with light brown spots irregular in shape and arrangement. Lateral area of the neck and body white, accompanied by irregular dark spots. Gular area with gray bands directed towards the mid-ventral area. Chest with small and very faint gray spots, white or slightly pink belly, ventral area of the fore and hind limbs without spots. Ventral area of the tail white or slightly pink.
|Comment||Conservation: Valladares-Faundez et al. 2021 recommend to classify this species as Critically Endangered B2ab(iii); C2a(ii).|
|Etymology||Valladares-Faundez et al. 2021 dedicate this species to Jorge Basadre Grohmann (1903–1980), a distinguished Peruvian historian and native of Tacna who wrote important works on the culture and history of Peru. Currently the National University of Tacna bears his name, as does one of the regional provinces of southern Peru.|
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