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Liolaemus carlosgarini ESQUERRÉ, NÚÑEZ & SCOLARO, 2013

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Garín’s Lizard
S: Lagartija de Garín 
SynonymLiolaemus carlosgarini ESQUERRÉ, NÚÑEZ & SCOLARO 2013 
DistributionC Chile

Type locality: International Road 115, below the Maule Lagoon. 36°1′0″S, 70°35′0″ E (paper says 19 H 358560 E–6018117 S) WGS84. 1915 m elevation.  
ReproductionProbably viviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHNCL 4563. Male, collected by Carlos Garín. On February 22, 2008.
Paratypes. MNHNCL-4562 and one used for diaphanisation, males; MNHNCL-4561, 4564, 4565, 4566, 4567, 4568 and one used for diaphanisation, females. Same collection data as the holotype. 
CommentDiagnosis. Small to medium sized lizard, with a mean SVL (Snout-Vent Length) of 60.7 mm and a maximum of 68.8 mm. Slender body, moderately robust limbs, head longer than wide, tail over 1.5 times body length, and 86- 101 scales around midbody. Background dorsal coloration is ochre, with a dark occipital stripe, parietal stripes as the background color, and lateral stripes the same coloration as the occipital stripe. Black spots distributed variably between the dorsal region of the head and limbs. Individual white scales scattered on the dorsal region of the body, and a clear and mottled ventral region. It can be distinguished from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its extreme reduction of precloacal pores. None of the male samples, despite being only three, had these pores, and it seems that a very low frequency of males has them (C. Garín in. litt. 2011). Because the absence of precloacal pores is not absolute in this species, minimum diagnostic traits to distinguish it from all the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex are given.

L. carlosgarini is distinguished from L. austromendocinus, L. elongatus, L. gununakuna (Avila et al. 2004), L. petrophilus, L. choique, L. shitan, L. capillitas, L. dicktracyi, L. heliodermis, L. talampaya, L. antumalguen (Avila et al. 2010) , L. umbrifer and L. burmeisteri (Avila et al. 2012) because all of these species have a significantly larger SVL (with a maximal SVL ranging from 82 mm in L. heliodermis to 107.8 mm in L. antumalguen). In addition, all of them exhibit a lower number of scales around midbody. The only species that overlaps that number with L. carlosgarini (86–101), is L. gununakuna (84–97), but the latter has iridescent yellow body coloration, with dark transversal bars, very distinguishable from the ochre coloration and longitudinal stripes in L. carlosgarini. Finally, none of the species mentioned above exhibit the design pattern of L. carlosgarini, with longitudinal stripes. It is worth noting the striking exomorphological similarity L. carlosgarini has with L. smaug, which in addition is found relatively close to the type locality of L. carlosgarini (between Las Loicas and Volcán Peteroa provincial road, Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina: 35°39’51,3’’S; 70°12’00,9’’W, 1688 m), but it differs from this species because L. smaug has a lower number of scales around midbody (73–80), in addition to a constant presence of precloacal pores in males (3–4) (Abdala 2010; Abdala in. litt. 2011). Sexual dichromatism has not been observed in L. carlosgarini as in L. smaug, nor have golden yellow specimens of L. carlosgarini been observed, but this trait deserves further analysis of live specimens.

From L. cristiani it can be differentiated because L. cristiani has a very dark and pronounced melanistic stripe on the flanks (quite different from the paler stripe in L. carlosgarini), and in the absence of an occipital stripe, present in L. carlosgarini. L. cristiani is larger (mean SVL of 70.67 vs. 60.7 mm), and has fewer number of scales around midbody (83–89 vs 86–101), although these values overlap.

It is differentiated from L. ceii, L. kriegi, L. buergeri, L. ramonensis, L. valdesianus and L. leopardinus because all of them are larger, the smallest being L. buergeri from Pichuante in Teno River, Chile, with a mean SVL of 73.2 mm and a maximum of 87.2 mm. All of these species have precloacal pores and differences in pattern, coloration and squamation. Nevertheless, L. leopardinus males lacking pores can be found, although the exomorpohological differences, especially in pattern, are very notorious. From L. coeruleus and L. neuquensis it can be distinguished by the blue or greenish ventral coloration in both species, and in having fewer scales around midbody. From L. thermarum, L. punmahuida, L. flavipiceus, L. tregenzai and L. riodamas it can be differentiated because all of these have a lower number of scales around midbody, larger size, and a uniform pattern, opposed to the well-defined design in L. carlosgarini.

Sympatry: L. buergeri, L. flavipiceus, Phymaturus maulense (Núñez et al. 2010) and Pleurodema bufonina. 
EtymologyNamed after Carlos Garín, “who besides being a good friend, collected these specimens, and provided great assistance.” 
References
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Guía de Campo - Reptiles del centro sure de Chile. Corporación Chilena de la Madera, Concepción, Chile 187 pp. - get paper here
  • ESQUERRÉ, DAMIEN; HERMAN NÚÑEZ & JOSÉ ALEJANDRO SCOLARO 2013. Liolaemus carlosgarini and Liolaemus riodamas (Squamata: Liolaemidae), two new species of lizards lacking precloacal pores, from Andean areas of central Chile. Zootaxa 3619 (4): 428–452 - get paper here
  • Gagliardi, Jorge et al. 2016. Fotografías herpetológicas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología. 3: 40-52. PDF - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios J, Díaz HA, Esquerré D, Urra FA 2015. Two new species of the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Iguania, Liolaemidae) from Andean highlands of southern Chile. ZooKeys 500: 83-109. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.500.8725 - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios J, Diaz HA, Puas GI, Riveros-Riffo E, Elorza AA 2016. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae). ZooKeys 632: 121-146 - get paper here
 
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