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Liolaemus chiliensis (LESSON, 1830)

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesChilean Tree Iguana, Unidentata lizard, weeping lizard 
SynonymCalotes chiliensis LESSON 1830: 36 (1828 fide LAURENT 1992)
Tropidurus olivaceus WIEGMANN 1835: 268c
Proctotretus Chilensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 269
Liolaemus chilensis — FITZINGER 1843: 75
Leiodeira chilensis — GRAY 1845: 210
Liodeira chilensis — GIRARD 1858: 340 (part.)
Proctotretus Chilensis — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Liolaemus chilensis — BOULENGER 1885: 141
Liolaemus chilensis — KOSLOWSKY 1896
Liolaemus chilensis — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 170
Liolaemus chiliensis — SCHULTE et al. 2000 
DistributionChile (Coquimbo, Cautin; HR 33: 226), Argentina (Neuquen)

Type locality: Talcahuano, Provincia de Concepción, Chile.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN, presumed but not located. 
CommentReproduction: Oviparous.

Synonymy partly after BOULENGER 1885. Some of the synonyms of L. chiliensis were listed as synonyms of L. nitidus by BOULENGER 1885. BOULENGER (1885) also considered Proctotretus modestus PHILIPPI 1860 as a synonym of Liolaemus chiliensis (LESSON 1830).

Type species: Calotes chiliensis LESSON 1830 is the type species of the genus Liolaemus WIEGMANN 1834. The genus Liolaemus is the type genus of the family Liolaemidae FROST et al. 2001 (previously Liolaeminae FROST & ETHERIDGE 1989).

Within Liolaemus the approximately 80 species of the Liolaemus sensu stricto group of Laurent (1985) or chiliensis group (Etheridge 1995) share two characters: a fused meckel’s groove and four or fewer precloacal pores.

The chiliensis group has been studied in detail by LOBO (2001) and DIAZ-GOMEZ & LOBO (2006). LOBO (2001) suggests the following monophyletic species groups within Liolaemus: alticolor, altissimus, gravenhorstii, hellmichi, kriegi, leopardinus, monticola, nigromaculatus, nigroviridis, pictus and tenuis. 
References
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Diaz Gómez, J.M. & Lobo, F. 2006. HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF A CLADE OF LIOLAEMUS (IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) BASED ON ANCESTRAL AREAS AND DISPERSAL-VICARIANCE ANALYSIS (DIVA). Pap. Avuls. Zool. (São Paulo) 46 (24): 261-274 - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Santiago: Univ. Chile, 458 + cxlvi.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Frost, Darrel R.; Richard Etheridge; Daniel Janies and Tom A. Titus 2001. Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata, Iguania). American Museum Novitates 3343: 1-22 - get paper here
  • Frost,D.R. & Etheridge,R.E. 1989. A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 81: 1-62 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1896. Sobre algunos reptiles de Patagonia y otras regiones argentinas. Revista Mus. La Plata 7: 447-457 - get paper here
  • Labra, Antonieta; Gabriela Silva, Fernanda Norambuena, Nelson Velásquez, and Mario Penna 2013. Acoustic Features of the Weeping Lizard's Distress Call. Copeia Jul 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 2: 206-212. - get paper here
  • Lamborot, M.; Manzur, M.E. & Alvarez-Sarret, E. 2006. Triploidy and mosaicism in Liolaemus chiliensis (Sauria: Tropiduridae). Genome 49: 445–453
  • Lesson, R.P. 1830. Description de quelques reptiles nouveaux ou peu connus. In: M.L.I. Duperrey, Voyage Autour du Monde Execute par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de La Majeste, La Coquille, exécuté Pendant les Annees 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. 2. Zoologie 2 (1). Arthur Bertrand, Paris: 1-65
  • Lobo, Fernando 2001. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lizards of the Liolaemus chiliensis Group (Iguania: Tropiduridae). The Herpetological Journal 11 (4):137-150
  • Núñez,H.; Schulte, J.A. & Garín, C. 2001. Liolaemus josephorum, nueva especie de lagartija para el Norte de Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 91-107
  • SCHULTE II, JAMES A.; J. ROBERT MACEY, ROBERT E. ESPINOZA AND ALLAN LARSON 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 75–102 - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
  • VALLADARES, J. PABLO; RICHARD ETHERIDGE, JAMES SCHULTE II, GERMAN MANRIQUEZ <br />& ANGEL SPOTORNO 2002. Nueva especie de lagartija del norte de Chile, Liolaemus molinai (Reptilia: Liolaeminae). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 473-489
  • Videla, F., and J. M. Cei. 1996. A new peculiar Liolaemus species of the "chiliensis" phyletic group from the volcanic cordilleran landscapes of southern Mendoza province, Argentina (Iguania, Lacertilia, Reptilia). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 14: 505-516.
  • Werner, F. 1904. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise. I. Band. Allgemeines, Chordonier, Echinodermen und Coelenteraten. IV. Reptilien und Batrachier. L Friedrichsen & Co, Hamburg, 21 pp.
  • Werning, H. 2009. Auf den Spuren von Darwin durch Südamerika, Teil 2: Von Patagonien nach Zntral-Chile. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (79): 52-61 - get paper here
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
 
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