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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
DistributionChile (Arica y Parinacota region, around Lago Chungará, around Colpita)

Type locality: Entrada a Putre. 18°10’53.4”S; 69°31’58.6”W; 3874 m elevation, Arica y Parinacota Región  
TypesHolotype: FML 26505: Male. Abdala, C.S.; Acosta J.L.; Semhan R. and Valladares, P. Cols.
Paratypes: FML 26505: Female. Same data as holotype. FML 26504-508; MCN 4734-35: five males and two fe- males. Margen Sur del Lago Chungará. 18°16’17.0”S; 69°09’37.7”W; 4583 m. Arica y Parinacota Región. Ab- dala, C.S., Acosta J.L., Semhan R. and Valladares, P. Cols. CUT 1000-02, FML 26509-513: four males and four fe- males. Cerca de Putre desvío a Colpita. Arica y Parinacota Región. Abdala, C.S., Acosta J.L., Semhan R. and Val- ladares, P. Cols. 
CommentDiagnosis: A small (snout–vent length [SVL] <50 mm), slen- der-bodied and long-tailed Liolaemus belonging to the subgenus Liolaemus (sensu Laurent, 1985; Schulte et al., 2000; Lobo et al., 2010), with which it shares the follow- ing synapomorphies: supralabials narrow, width equal to or less than that of lorilabials, usually four, the pos- terior one elongate and usually upturned posteriorly (Etheridge, 1995; Lobo, 2001, 2005). Within this subge- nus, L. chungara belongs to the L. alticolor-bibronii group (sensu Lobo et al., 2010; Quinteros, 2012, 2013), with which it shares the following characteristics: small body size (SVL < 60 mm), a distinct dorsal color pattern formed by dorsolateral stripes, paravertebral spots, vertebral and ventrolateral lines, and a fine gray to black markings on the ventral surface of the tail (Lobo, 2005, Quinteros, 2012). These character states could resemble those of the L. gravenhorsti and L. robertmertensi groups, but the L. al- ticolor-bibronii group differs from them in having a smaller SVL, a vertebral line, and developed neck folds (absent in the L. robertmertensi group; Quinteros, 2012, 2013).
The new taxon differs from all other species of the L. alticolor-bibronii group in having supernumerary pores (absent in all other species of the group, and of the subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto). Within the L. alticolor-bibronii group, L. chungara is most similar to L. alticolor and is phenetically close to L. paulinae, and it is geographically close to L. puna (all of which are members of the L. alticolor-bibronii group), from which the new species differs in several respects. All males of L. chungara exhibit the same color pattern as females, whereas only a lower percentage (21%; n = 32) of males of L. puna have this character state. Specimens of L. chungara have the subocular scale white (differing from background coloration of loreal region), whereas the subocular scale is the same color as the loreal region in specimens of L. puna and L. paulinae. Temporal scales (upper temporal) of L. chungara are weakly keeled, whereas in L. puna temporal scales are smooth. Most of the neck scales of L. chungara are granular (a few are laminar), whereas in L. puna and L. pyriphlogos all neck scales are laminar. Also, this character-state distinguishes the new species from L. alticolor and L. paulinae. Liolaemus chungara differs from L. alticolor in the width of dorso- lateral stripes, being wider (at least include three scales) in L. alticolor and narrower (two scales wide) in L. chun- gara. Number of precloacal pores in L. alticolor (2–4, X = 3 ± 0.8) is lower than L. chungara (3–6; X = 4.25 ± 0.8). Dorsal scales of the new taxon are sharply pointed; dif- fering from L. paulinae and L. tacnae (dorsal scales without sharp point). The temporal scales of L. chungara are slightly keeled (upper temporal), whereas the temporal scales of L. paulinae, L. tacnae, and L. walkeri are smooth. On the dorsal surface of the head, a black line surround- ing interparietal scale is present in L. chungara (as well as in L. alticolor and L. puna) and absent in L. bitaeniatus, L. incaicus, L. paulinae, L. pagaburoi, L. ramirezae, L. tacnae, L. variegatus, and L. walkeri. Paravertebral spots are ab- sent in L. chungara but are evident in L. aparicioi, L. bitae- niatus, L. incaicus, L. paulinae, L. pyriphlogos, L. pagaburoi, and L. variegatus. A vertebral line is distinct in specimens of L. chungara, whereas most of the specimens of L. apari- cioi lack a vertebral line (although a few specimens had a trace or fragmented line), and a vertebral line is absent in L. bitaeniatus, L. tacnae, in females of L. incaicus, and in males of L. puna. Females of L. chungara lack precloacal pores, whereas females of L. aparicioi, L. bitaeniatus, L. in- caicus, L. ramirezae, L. variegatus, and L. yanalcu exhibit precloacal pores. In L. chungara the throat ground color is gray, whereas in L. bitaeniatus, L. chaltin, and L. paga- buroi it is cream-white, and in L. tacnae it is melanistic. Moreover, the throat in L. chungara presents black spots (or lines), which differs markedly from the immaculate throat of L. chaltin, L. incaicus, and L. ramirezae.
The new taxon differs from L. abdalai, L. bibronii, L. exploratorum, L. fuscus, L. lemniscatus, L. saxatilis, and L. tandiliensis in lacking paravertebral spots (present in those taxa). Temporal scales (upper) are slightly keeled in L. chungara, whereas they are smooth in L. bibronii and markedly keeled in L. lemniscatus, L. saxatilis, and L. robertmertensi. Also, most of neck’s scales of L. chungara are granular and a few laminar (but this last one smooth), differing from L. abdalai, L. fuscus, L. lemniscatus, and L. saxatilis (laminar and keeled scales), L. cyaneinotatus (keeled scales) and L. bibronii, L. exploratorum, and L. san- juanensis (laminar and smooth, but without granular scales). Liolaemus chungara has lower scales around mid- body (39–49), than L. exploratorum (50–52). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. The name Chungará comes from the Aymara epithet ch’unkara (moss on the stone). 
  • Quinteros, Andrés Sebastián; Pablo Valladares, Romina Semham, José Luis Acosta, Sebastián Barrionuevo, and Cristian Simón Abdala 2014. A New Species of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) of the alticolor-bibronii Group from Northern Chile. South American Journal of Herpetology Apr 2014, Vol. 9, No. 1: 20-29. - get paper here
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