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Liolaemus fitzingerii (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837)

IUCN Red List - Liolaemus fitzingerii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesFitzinger's Tree Iguana 
SynonymProctotretus fitzingerii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 286
Proctotretus Fitzingerii — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Eulaemus affinis GIRARD 1858: 366
Proctotretus fitzingerii — COPE 1878: 36
Liolaemus fitzingeri — BOULENGER 1885: 150
Liolaemus melanops BURMEISTER 1888: 252
Liolaemus fitzingeri — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 293
Liolaemus fitzingerii — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 182
Liolaemus fitzingerii fitzingerii — CEI & SCOLARO 1977: 225
Liolaemus fitzingerii — ETHERIDGE 2000
Liolaemus (Eulaemus) fitzingerii — SCHULTE et al. 2000
Liolaemus fitzingerii — AVILA et al. 2006
Liolaemus sp. 9 — ABDALA 2007
Liolaemus fitzingerii — AVILA et al. 2008
Liolaemus fitzingerii — ABDALA et al. 2012
Liolaemus camarones ABDALA, DÍAZ-GÓMEZ & JUAREZ-HEREDIA 2012: 44 
DistributionChile, Argentina (Patagonia, Chubut, Santa Cruz)

Type locality: Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Erroneously given as “Chile” by Bibron and Duméril (1837).

camarones: Argentina (Chubut); Type locality: Beach 3 km south of Camarones, Bahia Camarones, Florentino Ameghino Department, Chubut Province, Argentina  
ReproductionOviparous. 
TypesLectotype: MNHN 2504 (Cei, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 2: 319): Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris.

Holotype: FML 23301. Adult male. Collected by C. S. Abdala, J. S. Abdala and E. Malovini. January 22 2002. (Figs. 9–10);Paratypes.― FML 23302-23308. Seven individuals, 5 males, 2 females. Same data as holotype. FML 24140-144. 5 individuals, 3 males, 2 females. Beach 1 km south of Camarones, road to Elola beach, Bahía Camarones, Florentino Ameghino Department, Chubut Province, Argentina. S 44° 48 ́ 33.0 ́ ́ W 69° 44 ́8.9 ́ ́. Collected by C. S. Abdala, F. Cruz, G. Perotti and R. Semhan. December 18 2009 [camarones] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and MINOLI et al. 2014 who synonymized camarones with fitzingeri despite the fact that the species appears quite different from fitzingeri and shehuen on the trees in Abdala et al. 2012: 36f). Unfortunately they don’t say how these trees were constructed in the figure legends.
Charles Darwin collected 3 varieties (A, B, C) of Proctotretus fitzingeri. Variety A was synonymized with Liolaemus fitzingerii melanops (Burmeister, 1888) and L. signifer (Dumeril and Bibron, 1837), variety B was synonymized with Liolaemus fitzingerii fitzingerii (Duméril and Bibron, 1837) and L. kingii (Bell, 1843), while variety C was considered as the original holotype (Cei 1980) of Liolaemus fitzingerii fitzingerii with Puerto Deseado (Santa Cruz, Argentina) as the type locality (I. Minoli, pers. comm., 22 Apr 2016).

Variation: L. fitzingeri is quite a variable species (see photos in Abdala et al. 2012: 50ff).

Types: Two of the syntypes of this species belong to Liolaemus fitzingerii melanops, and Liolaemus kingii (fide CEI 1980).

Diagnosis (camarones): Liolaemus camarones sp. nov. belongs to the Liolaemus boulengeri group, which is characterized by having a patch of enlarged scales on the posterior medial surface of the thigh (Etheridge 1995; Abdala 2007) and a hypertrophy of the flexor tibialis internus muscle (Abdala et al. 2006). It differs from the species of the Liolaemus anomalus group (Table 2) reported in Abdala (2007), in having tail long relative to body length, head proportionally longer than wide, palpebral ‘comb’ not developed, and more precloacal pores in males and females. It differs from the species of the L. darwinii (Table 2) in having posterior teeth with expanded crowns and different body proportions, and in lacking a transversal black line on the eye. It differs from the species of the L. wiegmannii group (Table 2) in having a row of lorilabial scales (never two or three) and four scales in contact with mental (six in the L. wiegmannii group). L. camarones sp. nov. differs from L. boulengeri, L. donosobarrosi, L. goetschi, L. hermannunezi, L. inacayali, L. josei, L. loboi, L. martorii, L. rothi, L. sagei, L. senguer, L. tehuelche, and L. telsen in having an evident black antehumeral arch, which is lacking in the aforementioned species. It differs from all the species from the L. telsen group, except L. rothi and L. sagei, in having longer snout-vent length (max SVL 95.6 mm vs. 62.3–77.1 mm). It differs from L. mapuche in having four scales in contact with mental (four to six in L. mapuche) and more marked ventral melanism. It differs from L. cuyanus in having four scales in contact with mental (six in L. cuyanus) and more marked ventral melanism.

Liolaemus camarones sp. nov. belongs to the L.fitzingerii clade (Abdala 2007), which is characterized by its tricuspidate posterior teeth with expanded crowns, neck equal to or wider than head, cylindrical body, short limbs relative to the trunk, black antehumeral arch present and ventrally expanded, and males with ventral melanism.

Within the Liolaemus fitzingerii clade, L. camarones sp.nov. differs from L. canqueli and L. melanops in lacking head melanism and in the dorsal coloration pattern; it does not present the intense green dorsum with irregular, transversal black paravertebral spots of L. melanops or the transversal black and yellow-orange bands of L. canqueli. Liolaemus camarones differs from L. chehuachekenk and L. morenoi in lacking pre- and postescapular spots and having different coloration pattern; it differs from L. fitzingerii in having shorter snout-vent length (maximum SVL 95.6 mm vs. 106 mm), evident sexual dichromatism with different dorsal coloration pattern in males and females, and evident paravertebral spots, and in lacking dorsolateral markings and red scales in the vertebral region. It differs from L. xanthoviridis in the dorsal coloration pattern, with paravertebral spots and vertebral region more uniform, without irregular markings and antehumeral arch narrower, never reaching forelimbs [ABDALA et al. 2012]. 
EtymologyNamed after Leopold Josef Fitzinger (1802-1884), Austrian naturalist. L. camarones has been named after the Type locality. 
References
  • ABDALA C. S., R. V. SEMHAN, D. L. MORENO AZOCAR, M. BONINO, M. M. PAZ & F. CRUZ 2012. Taxonomic study and morphology based phylogeny of the patagonic clade Liolaemus melanops group (Iguania: Liolaemidae), with the description of three new taxa. Zootaxa 3163: 1–32 - get paper here
  • Abdala, C.S. 2007. Phylogeny of the boulengeri group (Iguania: Liolaemidae, Liolaemus) based on morphological and molecular characters. Zootaxa 1538: 1-84 - get paper here
  • Abdala, Cristian Simón; Quinteros, Andres Sebastian 2014. Los últimos 30 años de estudios de la familia de lagartijas más diversa de Argentina. Actualización taxonómica y sistemática de Liolaemidae Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 55-82 - get paper here
  • ABDALA, CRISTIAN SIMÓN; JUAN MANUEL DÍAZ GÓMEZ & VIVIANA ISABEL JUAREZ HEREDIA 2012. From the far reaches of Patagonia: new phylogenetic analyses and description of two new species of the Liolaemus fitzingerii clade (Iguania: Liolaemidae). Zootaxa 3301: 34–60 - get paper here
  • Avila, L.J.; Morando, M. & Sites, J.W. 2008. New Species of the Iguanian Lizard Genus Liolaemus (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemini) from Central Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Herpetology 42 (1): 186–196 - get paper here
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  • MINOLI, IGNACIO; MARIANA MORANDO & LUCIANO J. AVILA 2014. Integrative taxonomy in the Liolaemus fitzingerii complex (Squamata: Liolaemini) based on morphological analyses and niche modeling. Zootaxa 3856 (3): 501–528
  • SCHULTE II, JAMES A.; J. ROBERT MACEY, ROBERT E. ESPINOZA AND ALLAN LARSON 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 75–102 - get paper here
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